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Alaska Senate Champions Low-Income Seniors and Legal Aid in Sweeping Legislation

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Alaska Senate Champions Low-Income Seniors and Legal Aid in Sweeping Legislation


As dawn breaks over the snow-dusted peaks of Alaska, a significant legislative stride has warmed the hearts of many, especially the state’s most vulnerable citizens. In a recent session, the Alaska Senate passed key pieces of legislation, marking a pivotal moment for low-income seniors and Alaskans seeking legal aid. Among these, Senate Bill 170 shines brightly, offering a beacon of hope and stability to nearly 9,000 senior Alaskans by permanently extending a vital benefits program.

A Lifeline for Alaska’s Seniors

In a unanimous decision that transcends political divides, the Alaska Senate approved Senate Bill 170, permanently safeguarding monthly payments ranging from $76 to $250 for low-income seniors. This legislative act, championed by Sen. Scott Kawasaki, not only solidifies the state’s commitment to its elder population but also removes the looming expiration date that cast uncertainty over the program’s future. The Senior Benefits Payments Program, a critical source of support for those over 65, faced potential cuts in 2019. However, the public’s strong opposition and the recent legislative amendment have cemented its permanency, ensuring that Alaska’s seniors can continue to rely on this essential financial aid.

Strengthening Legal Aid for the Needy

Another legislative victory, Senate Bill 104, targets the growing need for civil legal aid among low-income individuals and survivors of domestic violence. By increasing the state funding for the Alaska Legal Services Corp by approximately $450,000 annually, this bill significantly enhances the capacity to provide free legal assistance. This move not only underscores the importance of access to justice for all Alaskans but also strengthens the support network for those in dire need of legal representation. The increase in funding is a testament to the state’s commitment to aiding its residents in navigating the complexities of civil lawsuits, offering a lifeline to those who otherwise might be left to face legal challenges alone.

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A Commitment to Community and History

Complementing these impactful pieces of legislation, the Alaska Senate unanimously passed bills to rename a bridge in honor of Raymond and Esther Conquest and to establish Alaska Veterans’ Poppy Day. These acts not only reflect the Senate’s dedication to community and historical recognition but also highlight the broader theme of commitment to public service and remembrance. By honoring the Conquests and establishing a day to recognize veterans, the Senate weaves the fabric of Alaska’s history and values into the present-day legislative framework, ensuring that the legacy of service and sacrifice continues to be celebrated.

In a world where legislative actions often go unnoticed, the Alaska Senate’s recent decisions serve as a resounding affirmation of the power of government to effect positive change in the lives of its citizens. These bills, particularly Senate Bill 170 and Senate Bill 104, embody the spirit of empathy, support, and unwavering commitment to the welfare of Alaska’s most vulnerable populations. As these legislative measures take effect, they promise not only to provide immediate relief but also to lay the groundwork for a more compassionate and just Alaska.





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The Sunday Minefield – April 21, 2024

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The Sunday Minefield – April 21, 2024


We are almost to day 100 of session, meaning just over three weeks remains until the constitutional session limit of 121 days. There is still a lot remaining to do including the budget, education, and energy. Don’t hold your breath that anything significant will happen on education or energy. The Senate Finance Committee rolled out their committee substitute for the operating budget this week. The House Resources Committee held an explosive hearing where managers from a small oil company attacked Shell and Department of Natural Resources Commissioner John Boyle. And the Alaska Republican Party held their convention this weekend in Anchorage at the Captain Cook. They elected Carmela Warfield as their new chair.

A friendly message and reminder to all our readers. The Landmine is made possible by myself and a team of awesome Alaskans. I am back in Juneau for my sixth session in a row reporting on the Legislature. If you enjoy the content we provide, please consider making a one time or recurring monthly donation. You can click here to donate. We have a donation system that makes it super easy. We would really appreciate it. And thanks to everyone who has been supportive!

Session End Approaching 

Just 24 days remain until the constitutional session limit. The House and Senate did manage to meet their agreed upon deadline last week to exchange budgets. But the budget is just one part of the adjournment package. Various energy and education priorities are being floating around, but there is still no clear alignment between the House and Senate on them. And Governor Mike Dunleavy (R – Alaska) has essentially been checked out.

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A problem with the budget could arise in the House. The Senate already cut the dividend down to approximately $1,500 when you factor in the surplus “energy rebate” that was put in place last year if oil prices remain high. That’s a $750 reduction from the House number. If the dividend number that comes out of a conference committee is not acceptable to the mega PFD members of the House majority, the majority will need minority votes to get to 21 to pass the budget. The House majority has 23 members, meaning they can only lose two votes if the minority does not vote for the budget. The House majority has at least eight mega PFD folks.

The House minority will want something for their votes. Probably a guarantee of an education bill like SB 140 and funding to upgrade the railbelt intertie. Those things cost a lot. The good news is it’s the second session. So if some members of the House majority cut a deal with the House minority and the Senate, things probably won’t get too loose because it’s an election year. There will be a new Legislature come January.

The next few weeks will be interesting. The Senate majority is a fine-tuned machine, so they will be taking the lead on the budget. If things do fall apart, they have the option to extend for 10 days. But the will to stick around does not seem to be there, at least now. The weather has been great and everyone wants to get out of town. It’s also an election year so members want to go home and campaign.

No consensus on energy reforms as legislative session nears end

The following is an excerpt from this week’s edition of the Alaska Political Report. You can click here for more information about the Political Report. A subscription is $1,299/year per organization. Discounted pricing is available for non-profits and government entities. Our coverage of the budget starts with the governor’s proposed budget, and we track everything in detail through the entire process. If you have any questions or would like to subscribe, please email jeff@akpoliticalreport.com.

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Even as Southcentral nearly experienced a gas supply crisis, and with a huge number of bills circulating in Juneau, no consensus has emerged around the reforms lawmakers are considering. In January, this session was billed by legislative leaders and GOP Gov. Mike Dunleavy as an energy and education session. But with just under a month to go before the constitutional session limit, the Legislature has yet to pass any major energy legislation.

Transmission, natural gas subsidies and storage in Cook Inlet, and renewables are all on the table. But whatever lawmakers end up passing is still far from clear.

In early February, a long cold snap stressed the power grid in Southcentral due to a natural gas distribution problem. This was primarily caused by an issue with some of Enstar’s storage wells in the Cook Inlet Natural Gas Storage Alaska (CINGSA). Declining gas supply and production in the Cook Inlet means importing LNG is likely in the years to come.

Multiple proposals are floating around the House and Senate, including royalty relief and gas storage in Cook Inlet, a railbelt transmission organization, and funding for modernizing the railbelt energy grid.

The Political Report sat down with Fairbanks Republican Sen. Click Bishop, the co-chair of the Senate Resources Committee, and Anchorage Republican Rep. Tom McKay, the chair of the House Resources Committee, to talk about their energy priorities and get their thoughts on what might happen this session.

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Bishop’s priorities are focused on the railbelt. Gov. Dunleavy introduced legislation in February that aims to increase efficiency and lower power costs in the railbelt. Bishop referenced a trip legislators took to Iceland last year. He said after Iceland formed the equivalent of a railbelt transmission organization (RTO) between their utilities, they saw an improvement. But Dunleavy’s bills have yet to see traction in either body.

Bishop also emphasized the importance of funding the Grid Resilience and Innovation Partnership (GRIP) with the federal government. This project, which in total would cost the state more than $200 million (with the same amount in federal match) would upgrade the intertie between the railbelt utilities, providing redundancy and allowing more power to be moved.

Bishop acknowledged the need for increased gas storage in Cook Inlet and also the potential for royalty relief. There are two gas storage bills, Senate Bill 220 and House Bill 394. HB 394, a bill by McKay’s House Resources Committee, is likely to be the vehicle for gas storage in Cook Inlet. Bishop said the Senate is waiting for the House to send them Cook Inlet legislation.

There are also several royalty relief bills floating around. But Sitka Republican Rep. Bert Stedman, co-chair of the Senate Finance Committee, told the Political Report that he does not see any kind of Cook Inlet royalty relief passing the Legislature until they get proper input from their oil and gas consultant, GaffneyCline. It is not clear if that information will be provided in time for lawmakers to act before the end of session.

McKay is much more concerned with Cook Inlet. He wants to see increased gas storage and royalty relief. He acknowledged the benefit of upgrading the railbelt, but his clear priority is Cook Inlet. McKay said he is not interested in tapping the treasury – what occurred a decade ago when the Legislature approved cash credits for Cook Inlet – but instead, through royalty reduction, he believes more gas will be produced.

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McKay told the Political Report, “My agenda to address our energy needs is natural gas from Cook Inlet in the short-term and a gas pipeline from the North Slope in the long-term.”

Any energy legislation that passes the Legislature will likely be part of an adjournment package as only 27 days remain in session. And after the Superior Court ruling ruling on the correspondence program last week, education is sure to take up a lot of time in the final weeks of session. The House and Senate have different energy priorities, and Gov. Dunleavy has not made any public statements on energy in several weeks.

Early on in session, there was agreement between both bodies and Dunleavy that Alaska is facing an energy crisis. But so far, no meaningful action has been taken. The Legislature has the ability to extend 10 days or call a special session. But it’s an election year and legislators want to get home. Bills need to start moving quickly in order to pass before the end of session. We are watching closely and will provide updates in the weeks to come.

Other Happenings 

If you have not seen the debate I hosted on Friday between John Sims, president of Enstar Natural Gas, and Brad Keithley, managing director of Alaskans for Sustainable Budgets, on the natural gas supply issue in Southcentral, you can check it out here.

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The Alaska Republican Party held their biennial convention this weekend in Anchorage. Carmela Warfield was overwhelmingly elected as the new chair, getting more votes than the other three candidates combined. Congrats to her! And good riddance to Ann Brown, an extremely dishonest and nasty person. I stopped by for a bit yesterday to check it out. Several Republican legislators were in attendance. But my big takeaway was that many of the attendees are living in the past. The biggest and best thing the single primary and ranked choice voting did was diminish the role of the already waning political parties. But a lot of the people in both parties have failed to grasp that. These party types should familiarize themselves with the term “adapt or die.”

A House Resources Committee hearing on Monday (4/15/2024) got explosive when two representatives from the independent oil company Narwhal gave a presentation on oil leases they hold in West Harrison Bay. The West Harrison Bay Unit (WHBU) is currently controlled by Shell, but Narwhal holds adjacent leases. Check out this Landmine article to read about what happened.

Check this out. The plaintiffs in the Texas lawsuit against Furie, owned by John Hendrix, sent letters to Governor Dunleavy, Senator Cathy Giessel (R – Anchorage), Senator Jesse Bjorkman (R – Nikiski), and former Governor Bill Walker requesting their depositions and asking they preserve any correspondence related to the matter. The chickens are coming home to roost for John Hendrix.

Representative Andi Story (D – Juneau) filed a letter of intent for re-election this week. No one else has filed for the seat yet. The filing deadline to run for office is June 1.

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Representative Mike Prax (R – North Pole) picked up an opponent this week, North Pole Mayor Michael Welch. Prax was unopposed the last two cycles. Sources say Welch is running because Prax won’t request money for capital projects for the district.

There has been a lot of chatter thar former Republican Representative David Nelson is going to challenge Representative Cliff Groh (D – Anchorage). Groh beat Nelson in 2022 by 3.8 points. But that district includes JBER and it’s a presidential election year, meaning turnout will be higher. Turnout in that district was only 18.7% in 2022. If Nelson runs, that will be a race to watch.

This Week’s Loose Unit 

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There were plenty of good candidates in Juneau this week. But a weekend trip home made this week’s designee clear. This week’s Loose Unit is Anchorage. I got back on Thursday night and right away noticed the sheer amount of trash on the roads. Ok, it’s break up and this normal, I thought to myself. But the squalor I noticed this weekend was just fucking depressing. In addition to the large amount of garbage all over town, there are tents all over the place, homeless people congregating and sleeping all in public spaces, abandoned vehicles in parking lots, and just a general feeling of decay.

I went to Barnes and Noble this evening. I discovered an old Ford Expedition in the parking lot that looked like something out of Sarajevo in the 1990s. One commenter on the Facebook post said it’s been there for weeks. And one reported another abandoned and stripped vehicle in the Applebee’s parking lot, just down the road.

If you drive around Anchorage, especially Midtown, you will encounter tents all over. It’s only April. Just think how much worse it’s going to get. There’s also that large encampment at Cuddy Park. In addition to the homelessness, Anchorage just feels like a city in decline. I was driving down Lake Otis yesterday and saw several properties that were being used as storage for old cars and RVs. It looked horrible.

I remember when I moved to Anchorage in 2004. The city was clean and it felt thriving. The last decade has been a steady decline. And no one seems to want to fix it. Sure, we all talk about it. But the problems just worsen. Old roofs have been collapsing. We can’t seem to figure out how to plow the roads. Housing prices are continually rising because we can’t build more homes, which leads to people leaving and/or not moving here. The whole situation is depressing. We have to fix this town.

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If you have a nomination for this week’s Loose Unit, or if you have any political news, stories or gossip (or any old pics of politicians or public officials) please email me at jeff@alaskalandmine.com.





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National Guard delays staffing changes for Alaska Air National Guard

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National Guard delays staffing changes for Alaska Air National Guard


The National Guard’s country-wide plan to level out personnel numbers is being pushed back a year for Alaska’s Air National Guard. Instead of going into effect this October, the National Guard Bureau will push implementing the new changes to Sept. 30, 2025. That delay, Alaska’s congressional delegation says, will allow “the Air National Guard to complete a more comprehensive assessment of the impact the proposed changes will have on critical Alaska missions, and decide whether the proposed changes should occur at all.”

The change was announced on Friday, April 19. The National Guard’s plan, Program Element Code Leveling (sometimes referred to as “code leveling” or “PEC leveling”), would have cut 80 Active Guard and Reserve positions in the Alaska Air National Guard. ARG members of the Alaska ANG are essentially full-time active-duty personnel. Instead of making those cuts this year, the Alaska Air National Guard will use the extra time for a wider analysis of what PEC leveling would mean for operational readiness.

The National Guard’s other 53 units covering the other states and U.S. territories, are still set to complete cross leveling by Oct. 1. 

The Alaska ANG carries out a number of important missions, including handling urgent emergencies and playing a key role in defense strategy. Alaska ANG’s 2,400 members staff air defense missions under the purview of U.S. Northern Command, while crews also provide aerial refueling for U.S. military planes. Given harsh weather conditions and the remote nature of many communities, rescue operations are often done by air, and due to the risks are handled by the Air National Guard. There can often be several missions in one day. 

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The National Guard Bureau’s plan called for cutting 80 full-time active positions in the Alaska ANG, including several pilots and pararescuemen. Other jobs would be cut were more than a dozen of what are called “scope watchers,” the guardsmen who crew early warning systems. Task & Purpose reviewed an analysis made by the Alaska ANG, which said that the proposed cuts under the plan would lead to shortages as high as 50% on those missions.

The PEC leveling plan was heavily criticized both by state officials and Alaska’s three-member congressional delegation, citing national security concerns. Under the National Guard Bureau’s plans, the 80 AGR positions that would be lost would be replaced by 88 “dual-status technicians” with lower wages that the Alaska ANG said wouldn’t be able to meet the actual needs of those around-the-clock alert missions. Members of the Alaska ANG also voiced concerns over what the changes would mean for pay and benefits. The National Guard Bureau told Task & Purpose earlier this month that the proposed changes would not impact readiness. 

After the delay was announced, the state’s congressional delegation applauded the decision. In a joint statement all three members, Senators Lisa Murkowski and Dan Sullivan and Rep. Mary Peltola all pointed to the important role the Alaska ANG has in public safety and emergency services for people in Alaska. 

“These cuts would have undermined not only our state’s security, but our national security as well,” Sen. Dan Sullivan said. 

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The glass bottle mystery: The history of the Zarembo Springs Mineral Company

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The glass bottle mystery: The history of the Zarembo Springs Mineral Company


Part of a continuing weekly series on Alaska history by local historian David Reamer.

It began with a bottle, not in the usual way as a tragedy, but a mystery. Tinted blue and clearly old, the heavy glass bottle is imperfect with numerous bubbles frozen forever in the medium. A surprising embossed brand on its body: Zarembo Springs Mineral Co., Seattle, Washington. After an impulse purchase, I still wondered, what was its story? Here is the answer.

Zarembo Island, a large and unpopulated part of the Alexander Archipelago, lies west, southwest of Wrangell. Its Tlingít name is ShtaxʼNoow, and before the arrival of settlers, the area Shtaxʼhéen Ḵwáan (Stikine people) preserved Zarembo Island as a hunting sanctuary. In a 1946 report on Tlingit and Haida land rights and usage, Walter Goldschmidt and Theodore Haas quote Tlingit elder Willis Hoagland, “Zarembo Island belonged to the whole of the Wrangell people. No special clan owned that.”

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The Zarembo name is a relic of the Russian period of Alaska history. Dionysius Zarembo, captain of the Russian-American Company ship Chichagof, surveyed the area in 1834 and 1838. When British explorer George Vancouver passed through in 1793, he called it Duke of York Island.

As settlers entered the area, they used the island for deer hunting, logging, and as a sort of nearby vacation destination. Early 20th-century Alaska sources are rife with tales of multi-day trips packed with picnics, food, and even some mild frolicking. Maybe even some undocumented cavorting. From a 1909 Wrangell Sentinel article, “It took half a dozen boys, more or less, 14 guns, the schooner Plymouth Rock, and one Scripps motor, etc., to capture one poor little motherless deer on its way home from Sunday School last Sunday on Zarembo Island. The story the boys tell of the incidents of the trip would fill a Sunday edition of the Seattle Times, and their description of the midnight fishing for sandwiches would be a seller anywhere.”

And sometimes, if a local was feeling somewhat under the weather, they might partake of the island’s renowned mineral waters. From a 1909 Sentinel article, “Phil. Haught and Leo McCormack left for Zarembo Island Monday morning, there to rest for a few days, and fill up on the fine mineral water for which the island is so famous.” Or, from a different 1909 article, “The first thing upon arrival was a visit to the spring house where for the first time we tasted the wonderful Zarembo mineral water, rightly named ‘The Sparks of Life.’”

The Zarembo Island spring conveniently issues on the shore by St. John Harbor, on the island’s northwest side. The water possesses a relatively high mineral content, primarily calcium, carbonate, and sodium, in addition to some sulfur and iron. Covered at high tide, the water overhead bubbles from the spring’s release.

As is the way with much of modern Alaska history, someone finally looked at the spring and thought, “I could make some money off that.” The Zarembo Mineral Springs Company, based in Seattle, was incorporated on Nov. 4, 1904. Frank Wadsworth (1870-1906), one of the few fortune hunters to escape the Klondike Gold Rush with an actual fortune, was the founder and president. While sales likely began earlier, the product was formally introduced to the public at the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition that ran from June to October 1905 in Portland, Oregon.

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To prevent contamination from salt water, the bottling company built a small structure over a 10-foot-high concrete box surrounding the spring. A wooden wharf connected the spring building to the dock. The company bought a small launch, also named the Zarembo, to ferry the water from Alaska to Seattle. The bottling was done at a building owned by Wadsworth on Ninth Avenue.

From the few contemporary photographs of Zarembo Mineral Springs Company products, it appears that they produced several types of bottles. The most unique was a torpedo-shaped Hamilton bottle with rounded bottoms that could only be stored on its side. These Hamilton bottles would have been corked instead of metal-capped. Cork stoppers dry out over time, which, for carbonated drinks, would allow air to escape and the bubbly drink to go flat. William Hamilton designed the first torpedo bottle for carbonated beverages in 1814.

In Seattle, a town built in part upon the mining of prospectors, fortune hunters, traders, and tourists to and from Alaska, the clean, refreshing water of Zarembo Island was one more way to consume the wealth of the farther north. In particular, the Zarembo company built a brand based upon the lasting cachet of Alaska, in this case, that any water from there would be the purest and best exemplar of its type. A postcard from this era, titled The Morning After, shows a man in the throes of a hangover seeking a cure from a mineral water cooler labeled Alaska.

The Zarembo Mineral Springs Company made this association, of intrinsic Alaska quality and their own product, explicit in their advertising. A May 1906 Pacific Monthly magazine advertisement declared, “Alaska produces HEALTH as well as WEALTH.” The July edition of that magazine included a different advertisement that targeted female consumers. A woman who tried their product, “Blooms with new health at every sip of pure Zarembo water.”

Faith in the curative powers of mineral springs is an ancient human belief. And the practice of bottling spring water is centuries old. The first record of bottled mineral water is from 1622, at the Holy Well outside Malvern Wells, England. Bottled mineral water soon became an internationally traded product as advocates chased one outlandish medicinal claim after another. In 1767, the first American commercial water bottler opened in 1767 Boston. If anything, it is surprising that it took until 1904 for an Alaska-sourced mineral water company to enter the crowded field.

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There are a few signs of success. A 1908 note in the Douglas Island News claimed Zarembo Mineral Water sales were “five times greater than a year ago.” There was an impressive display at the 1909 Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition in Seattle, where judges awarded the company a gold medal for their mineral water. And in August 1909, the mineral water was featured during Made in Washington Day, a celebration of products from the state of Washington. At least the bottles were from Washington; the water’s Alaska origins were apparently downplayed when it suited company interests.

However, there are far more signs of a product struggling to survive, with the flavor being the foremost. Per the August 5, 1915 Wrangell Sentinel, “We would judge from the taste that the principal ingredients are soda, iron and sulphur, and being heavily charged with gas bubbles and sparkles when first taken from the spring, like freshly opened champagne. The first taste gives one the impression that the flavor might be improved by the addition of other ingredients, possibly rotten eggs, but after a few drinks and the effect is partially realized you forget the first uncomfortable taste, a feeling of rejuvenation comes over you and almost at once you feel certain that you are on the road to being restored to a normal and healthy condition.”

The iron content was also reportedly low enough to escape taste but high enough to stain bottles. And the Zarembo company entered a market already rich in competition. Mineral water brands like Buffalo Lithia, Aspenta, Bythinea, Red Cross, Hirano, Apollinaris, Red Raven Splits, Hunyadi János, U-Ran-Go, and many others, each with their own medicinal claims and romantic origins, clogged Seattle grocery store and pharmacy shelves.

The company struggled financially throughout its brief existence. A significant early investor, H. Stuart Brinley, sold his interest months before the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition. Wadsworth, the prime mover of the entire enterprise, died suddenly in 1906 at only 36 years old. In 1909, a company stock split and the relatively lavish display at the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition might have been last-ditch efforts to save the company.

Outside Seattle in the Lower 48, the company and product received almost no notice. Even in Wrangell, the bottler received only passing mentions. From 1906 to 1908, the product went nearly two years without mention in the major hometown newspapers. In the aftermath of Wadsworth’s death, the company may have temporarily ceased operations. In January 1910, Wadsworth’s widow sued for a divorce from her second husband, accusing him of “gross cruelty” and fraud. In particular, she claimed he had stolen a significant amount of property from her former husband’s estate, primarily from the Zarembo Mineral Springs Company holdings.

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By the time of her lawsuit, the company was already bankrupt. On Jan. 25, 1910, all remaining company assets were auctioned off. And, to offer a sense of finality, a fire gutted the Zarembo bottling facility on Dec. 2, 1912. Two firefighters were injured fighting the blaze, which an arsonist had started. The facility, such as it was, on Zarembo Island quickly fell into ruins. By 1915, the concrete retaining wall had failed, allowing salt water in again.

In all, the Zarembo Springs Mineral Company came and went with barely a dent in the historical record, some advertisements, too few pictures, and some scattered bottles like mine. Perhaps the bottler was late to market, underfinanced, or kneecapped by the sudden death of its founder. There is too little evidence to speculate further and no lessons to be learned. Few prospered from the company’s brief existence, most notably a scoundrel second husband and the occasional eBay merchant preying upon innocent historians, and almost certainly no one from around Wrangell.

Key sources:

“Dine on Products of State.” Seattle Times, August 29, 1909, 5.

“Dove Coos Again in Rutherford Family.” Seattle Times, January 21, 1910, 15.

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“Frank Wadsworth Expires Suddenly.” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 25, 1906, 16.

Goldschmidt, Walter R., and Theodore H. Haas. Haa Aani, Our Land: Tlingit and Haida Land Rights and Use. Juneau: Sealaska Heritage Foundation, 2000.

“New Corporations.” Seattle Times, August 10, 1909, 21.

Nichols, Sam H. State of Washington Eighth Biennial Report of the Secretary of State, 1904. Olympia: State of Washington, 1904.

“The Northland.” Douglas Island News, June 24, 1908, 1.

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“One Poor Little Deer.” Wrangell Sentinel, July 22, 1909, 1.

“Possibilities at Zarembo Springs.” Wrangell Sentinel, August 5, 1915, 3.

“Seattle Machinery Houses Win.” Seattle Times, October 3, 1909, 22.

“Sentinel’s Force Has a Pleasant Trip.” Wrangell Sentinel, June 10, 1909, 5.

“Two Sustain Hurts at Morning Blaze.” Seattle Times, December 2, 1912, 8.

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Untitled article. Wrangell Sentinel, July 15, 1909, 8.

Untitled bankruptcy auction article. Seattle Times, January 14, 1910, 26.

Waring, Gerald A. Mineral Springs of Alaska, USGS Water-Supply Paper 418. Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1917.





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