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Earth breaks heat and CO₂ records once again: 'Our planet is trying to tell us something'



Earth breaks heat and CO₂ records once again: 'Our planet is trying to tell us something'

Humanity is ignoring major planetary vital signs as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels soar to all-time highs and Earth records its 12th consecutive month of record-breaking heat, international climate officials warned this week.

At 60.63 degrees, the global mean temperature in May was a record 2.73 degrees hotter than the preindustrial average against which warming is measured — marking an astonishing yearlong streak of heat that shows little sign of slowing down, according to the European Union’s Copernicus Climate Change Service.

“For the past year, every turn of the calendar has turned up the heat,” António Guterres, secretary-general of the United Nations, said during a speech in New York on Wednesday. “Our planet is trying to tell us something. But we don’t seem to be listening. We’re shattering global temperature records and reaping the whirlwind. It’s climate crunch time. Now is the time to mobilize, act and deliver.”

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According to the Copernicus service, May was also the 11th consecutive month of warming beyond 2.7 degrees, the Fahrenheit equivalent of the internationally agreed-upon limit of 1.5 degrees Celsius intended to reduce the worst effects of climate change.

Not only was it a warm month, but the global average temperature for the last 12 months — June 2023 through May — was the highest on record, at 2.93 degrees Fahrenheit above the 1850-1900 preindustrial average.

An aerial view of an open umbrella being held by a person in a crosswalk.

A pedestrian holds an umbrella to protect against the sun in Bangkok, Thailand, in May — Earth’s 12th consecutive hottest month on record.

(Sakchai Lalit / Associated Press)


Guterres said the world is warming so quickly and spewing such considerable CO₂ emissions that the 1.5-degree Celsius goal is “hanging by a thread.”

“The truth is, global emissions need to fall 9% every year until 2030 to keep the 1.5-degree limit alive, but they are heading in the wrong direction,” he told a crowd at the American Museum of Natural History. “We are playing Russian roulette with our planet, and we need an exit ramp off the highway to climate hell.”

Indeed, it’s not just global temperatures that are soaring. Carbon dioxide levels — one of the main drivers of planetary warming — are also climbing to new highs.

Recent readings were 427 parts per million — the highest ever recorded in the month of May, according to Ralph Keeling, director of the CO₂ program at UC San Diego’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Carbon dioxide does not directly provide heat, but the greenhouse gas — which comes from the extraction and burning of fossil fuels — increases the atmosphere’s ability to trap heat that otherwise would be released to space.

CO₂ readings have been primarily measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii since 1958, when they began under Keeling’s father, Charles David Keeling. The graph of accumulating CO₂ levels, known as the Keeling Curve, has been steadily climbing since then.


But the planet isn’t only seeing record CO₂ levels — it is also seeing record gains, Keeling said.

The monthly average CO₂ concentration recorded in March was 4.7 parts per million higher than the reading from March 2023 — breaking the previous record for year-over-year gain, a jump of 4.1 parts per million from June 2015 to June 2016.

“That number was sticking out of the envelope of what we’ve seen in the past,” Keeling said.

Fossil fuels play the biggest role in the recent record numbers, but El Niño also had a hand, he said.

The tropical Pacific climate pattern that arrived last summer is associated with hotter global temperatures, as well as droughts in the tropics and some southern continents. As a result, tropical forests, savannas and grasslands in those areas tend to wither and die and burn in wildfires, contributing to additional CO₂ emissions.

A woman walks down a flight of stairs as red lanterns hang in the foreground.

A shopper escapes the outdoor heat in October 2023 at the Asian Garden Mall in Little Saigon in Westminster.

(Allen J. Schaben / Los Angeles Times)

“We have the highest fossil fuel burning, but we also had an El Niño event, and so the combination set a new all-time record,” Keeling said.

When asked how it feels to see the chart that bears his father’s name climb so steadily, Keeling said he mostly feels sad. Though there have been considerable gains in renewable energy and other efforts to reduce fossil fuel emissions, “we haven’t gained enough ground yet to reverse the growth,” he said.

“I just feel sad at all the loss that has been occurring, and will continue to occur, because of this,” he said.


During his speech Wednesday, Guterres said new data show the maximum amount of CO₂ the Earth’s atmosphere can take in order to limit long-term warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius is about 200 billion tons. But current emissions are around 40 billion tons per year, indicating that “the entire carbon budget will be busted before 2030.”

The 1.5-degree limit is not just symbolic — every fraction of a degree could mean the difference between extinction and survival for some small island states and coastal communities, or the difference between minimizing climate chaos and crossing dangerous tipping points, Guterres said.

Consequences of higher global temperatures include the likely collapse of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets and associated sea level rise; the destruction of coral reef systems; the loss of livelihoods for hundreds of millions of people; the collapse of sea currents that would disrupt weather patterns in Europe and other parts of the world; and widespread permafrost melt that would release more heat-trapping methane, among other outcomes, Guterres said.

He said urgent action and global cooperation are needed, and the 2020s will be the make-or-break decade. Cities, states and national governments must all play their part — as must fossil fuel corporations and global financial institutions — with actionable transition plans in place no later than the 2025 U.N. climate conference in Brazil, he said.

“It’s a transformation of society, and it’s a transformation of policy, and it is a real redesign of the priorities that we see in today’s world,” Guterres said. “Unfortunately, climate change has been victim of a diversion of attention, of public opinions, of governments and of media because of the horrible conflicts we are witnessing. … We cannot let them distract us from what is the existential threat of our times for humankind, and that is climate change.”


The latest broken records come as the western United States braces for a significant heat wave beginning this week that could see temperatures soar into the triple digits in many areas.

Portions of California and the Pacific Northwest are expected to see high temperatures well above average for the time of year, forecasters said — as hot as 110 degrees in the San Joaquin and Sacramento valleys, and more than 100 degrees near the northernmost part of the state.

The heat wave is expected to set the stage for a long, hot summer across the vast majority of the country, according to the latest seasonal temperature outlook from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which shows strong odds for warmer-than-normal conditions in almost every state.

Copernicus’ director, Carl Buontempo, said the ongoing global heat streak is “shocking but not surprising.”

“While this sequence of record-breaking months will eventually be interrupted, the overall signature of climate change remains and there is no sign in sight of a change in such a trend,” he said in a statement.


“We are living in unprecedented times, but we also have unprecedented skill in monitoring the climate, and this can help inform our action,” Buontempo said. “This string of hottest months will be remembered as comparatively cold but if we manage to stabilize the concentrations of [greenhouse gases] in the atmosphere in the very near future we might be able to return to these ‘cold’ temperatures by the end of the century.”

With five months of data already in the books, there is now a roughly 75% chance that 2024 will surpass 2023 as the planet’s hottest year on record, Zeke Hausfather, a climate scientist with Berkeley Earth, said in a post on the social media site X.

As the records keep tumbling, Hausfather said, it is also looking likely that June will be the hottest June on record as well.



Antibiotics wreak havoc on the gut. Can we kill the bad bugs and spare the good ones?



Antibiotics wreak havoc on the gut. Can we kill the bad bugs and spare the good ones?

Inside every human is a thriving zoo of bacteria, fungi, viruses and other microscopic organisms collectively known as the microbiome. Trillions of microbes live in the digestive tract alone, a menagerie estimated to contain more than 1,000 species.

This ecosystem of tiny stuff affects our health in ways science is only beginning to understand, facilitating digestion, metabolism, the immune response and more. But when serious infection sets in, the most powerful antibiotics take a merciless approach, wiping out colonies of beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract and often prompting secondary health problems.

“Increasingly, researchers are recognizing the benefits of protecting the human gut microbiome, particularly because its integrity and diversity is linked to metabolic influences on mental health and physical health conditions,” said Dr. Oladele A. Ogunseitan, a professor of population health and disease prevention at UC Irvine.

Drug-resistant bugs are evolving faster than new medicines are being developed, rendering the current arsenal of medicines increasingly ineffective. But the more we understand about the microbiome, the clearer it is that we need antibiotics that are discerning in their targets.

With that goal in mind, a chemistry team at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign is experimenting with a compound that attempts to address both problems. The antibiotic, lolamicin, both successfully vanquished several drug-resistant pathogens in mice while sparing the animals’ microbiome. The results were published in the journal Nature.


“Only recently has it been recognized that killing these [beneficial] bacteria is having many deleterious effects on patients,” said Paul J. Hergenrother, a chemistry professor at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign who co-led the study. “We have been interested for some time in finding antibiotics that would be effective without killing the good bacteria.”

The team set out to create an antibiotic that would both preserve the gut microbiome while targeting gram-negative bacteria, a particularly hardy category of superbugs. Encased in both an inner and outer membrane that antibiotics struggle to cross, gram-negative bacteria are resistant to most currently available therapies. They are responsible for the majority of the estimated 35,000 deaths in the U.S. each year from drug-resistant infections, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Worldwide, antimicrobial resistance kills an estimated 1.27 million people directly every year and contributes to the deaths of millions more.

Not all gram-negative bugs make us sick. Bacteria populations in the average human gut are roughly split between gram-negative and gram-positive types, said Kristen Munoz, a former doctoral student at the University of Illinois who co-led the study.

Broad spectrum antibiotics can’t tell which bugs to spare, she said. As a result, anything strong enough to treat a bad infection “is going to wipe out a good amount of your gut microbiome,” she said, even though they “aren’t doing anything wrong.”


The team focused its search for a new drug on compounds that suppress the Lol system, which shuttles lipoproteins between the inner and outer membranes in gram-negative bacteria.

The Lol system’s genetic code looks different in harmful bacteria than it does in beneficial ones, which suggested to researchers that medicines that targeted the Lol system would be able to distinguish good bugs from bad ones.

The team designed multiple versions of these Lol-inhibiting compounds. When tested against 130 drug-resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae, one in particular proved especially potent.

They tested this antibiotic, which they named lolamicin, on mice that had been infected with drug-resistant strains of septicemia or pneumonia. All of the mice with septicemia survived after receiving lolamicin, as did 70% of the mice with pneumonia.

To measure the effect on gut bacteria, the researchers gave healthy mice either lolamicin, a placebo or one of two common antibiotics, amoxicillin and clindamycin. After collecting baseline stool samples, they sampled the animals’ poop seven, 10 and 31 days after treatment.


Mice treated with amoxicillin or clindamycin had lower beneficial bacteria counts and less diversity of gut bacteria. In contrast, the guts of lolamicin-treated mice appeared largely the same.

“It was exciting to see that lolamicin did not really cause any changes in the microbiome, whereas the other clinically used antibiotics did,” Munoz said.

A disrupted microbiome can have immediate consequences for people battling infection. When beneficial microbes are decimated, dangerous bugs have fewer competitors and secondary infections can take hold.

Clostridium difficile is a notorious opportunistic pathogen, so the researchers did an experiment where they exposed mice treated with lolamicin, amoxicillin or clindamycin to C. difficile. The mice who took standard antibiotics were soon crawling with C. difficile. The lolamicin mice showed little to no infection.

The lab hopes to one day take lolamicin or a version of it to clinical trials, Hergenrother said. (Munoz received her doctorate last year and now works as a scientific analyst in Los Angeles.) Yet these are still early days for the drug. While the concept of a discerning antibiotic is a welcome development, it must clear significant barriers before it could make a difference for patients.


“Distinguishing a quote-unquote ‘bad bug’ from a quote-unquote ‘good bug’ is not always as straightforward as it may seem,” said Dr. Sean Spencer, a Stanford University gastroenterologist and physician scientist who was not involved with the research.

Some beneficial bugs in the gut bear a striking genetic resemblance to harmful pathogens, he said. Others are benign in some contexts and dangerous in others: “In a critically ill individual, a good bug can do bad things.”

Years can pass between a new antibiotic’s proof of concept and its entry to the market, and the vast majority never make it to the end of that pipeline. It’s also not clear how easily or how quickly bacteria will develop resistance, which is perhaps the most formidable obstacle that lolamicin or any new antibiotic faces.

“One of the biggest problems is that bacteria are so smart. You can tackle one particular protein system or protein target in bacteria, but they will quickly find a resistance mechanism,” Munoz said. “They just have so many inherent mechanisms to overcome antibiotics.”


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Doctors and dentists at L.A. County-run hospitals will get bonuses under tentative deal



Doctors and dentists at L.A. County-run hospitals will get bonuses under tentative deal

Unionized doctors and dentists who work at hospitals and other health facilities run by Los Angeles County will get cost-of-living increases and bonuses under new agreements with the county, reached after more than two years of bargaining and threats of a strike.

The tentative agreements with a pair of bargaining units represented by the Union of American Physicians and Dentists are expected to be voted on this month by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors.

Members of the Union of American Physicians and Dentists had geared up to go on strike in December, complaining that inadequate benefits had hampered recruitment and retention and driven up vacancy rates for crucial positions in county facilities, including for psychiatrists in its jails.

Much of the dispute centered on the “Megaflex” benefits package that L.A. County provides to more than 14,000 employees including managerial and administrative staff, most of whom are not unionized. That package gives workers an additional 14.5% to 19% over their base pay to buy benefits and allows them to keep any unspent portion as income, according to county officials.


UAPD pushed for its members to get those benefits. The Department of Health Services countered that they already had an “extensive benefits package” — the same one in place for more than 35,000 other county workers — and that giving all of them a more costly package would prevent the county from concentrating its incentives on the hardest-to-recruit workers.

The two sides also sparred over the costs of expanding Megaflex: At one point, UAPD officials estimated the added costs at roughly $20 million a year based on current wages, but county officials had pegged the expected expense at more than $86 million a year, with costs rising with any salary increase.

The planned strike in December was put on hold after the county and the union agreed to seek opinions from outside experts about the implications of expanding Megaflex.

In late April, the UAPD announced that its negotiating teams had reached tentative agreements with the county, which were ratified by union members by the end of May.

Under the deal, the workers would get cost-of-living increases that match those received by other county employees, with additional hikes for some positions ranging from 2.75% to 19.25%, according to the county chief executive office. Starting wages were also increased for some medical specialties such as neurology.


In addition, the county agreed to bolster benefits “no later than January 1, 2026,” according to the chief executive office. The added benefits include a 401(k) plan, as well as short-term disability benefits for physicians, who had complained that doctors were not getting enough paid time off to recover from childbirth.

The existing set of benefits put female physicians planning to become pregnant “at a disadvantage compared to private hospitals in the area,” said Dr. Michelle Armacost, a physician specializing in neurology at one of the county facilities, in a statement released by the union. “We demanded equitable benefits, and we were willing to strike for them. The county heard us, and we prevailed.”

Beyond those increases, county workers who are not covered by Megaflex will get an annual bonus of $14,000 on top of their base salary, according to the chief executive office. Union officials also said the deal features a “physician loyalty bonus for residents who choose to remain with the county after residency.”

“These new agreements set competitive wages and attractive benefits that we hope will allow us to fill critical vacancies at our county-run hospitals and other facilities and retain the talented healthcare workers already providing essential services to our county residents,” the chief executive office said in a statement.

County officials did not immediately provide an estimate of the costs of the new contract with the unionized doctors.


Benefits have long been a bone of contention for county physicians. Doctors employed by L.A. County were cut off from Megaflex benefits more than two decades ago, a few years after they had voted to unionize.

At the time, county officials said such benefits were available only to nonunionized employees. “The doctors, they knew full well what they were getting into,” then-Supervisor Don Knabe said in 2001.

Labor officials decried it as a move to break the fledgling union, calculating the value of the benefits package at $19,000 or more to some senior doctors at the time. State lawmakers then banned the county from removing workers from a benefits plan because they unionized, making the law retroactive to before the L.A. County move. The UAPD also sued the county, eventually securing over $10 million in settlement.

The union later negotiated a new agreement with the county that grandfathered in existing workers on Megaflex, but put new hires on a different plan, the county chief executive office said. As of December, only a small number of UAPD members — fewer than 200 — had Megaflex benefits, according to the county.

In a report last year to county supervisors, Dr. Christina R. Ghaly, director of the Department of Health Services, said that over the years, “steady increases in salary were negotiated while factoring in that this group does not receive Megaflex benefits.”


UAPD President Dr. Stuart Bussey rejected the idea that they had “bargained Megaflex away” at a public rally last year. In the past, “recruitment wasn’t as bad as it is now,” and a state law limiting pension benefits for government employees wasn’t in effect, Bussey told the crowd. “Times have changed.”

In a recent statement to union members, Bussey said that UAPD members had “refused to settle until we secured a collective bargaining agreement that prioritizes patient care with competitive pay and benefits.”

“Your determination and patience paid off, and we look forward to collaborating with the county to fill vacant positions.”

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Ed Stone, JPL director and top scientist on Voyager mission, dies at 88



Ed Stone, JPL director and top scientist on Voyager mission, dies at 88

Ed Stone, the scientist who guided NASA’s breakthrough Voyager mission to the outer planets for 50 years and led the Jet Propulsion Laboratory when it landed its first rover on Mars, died Tuesday. He was 88.

A physicist who got in on the ground floor of space exploration, Stone played a leading role in NASA missions to Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The discoveries made under his watch revolutionized scientists’ understanding of the solar system and fueled humanity’s ambition to explore distant worlds.

Carolyn Porco, who worked on imaging on JPL’s Voyager and Cassini missions, called Stone “a thoroughly lovely man” who was “as close to perfect as a project scientist could ever be.”

“When two science teams were in contention over some spacecraft resource, and Ed had to decide between the two, even the guy who lost went away thinking, ‘Well, if this is what Ed has decided, then it must be the right answer,’” Porco said by email Tuesday. “I feel blessed to have known Ed. And like many people today, I’m very sad to know he’s gone.”

Stone was a 36-year-old Caltech physics professor in 1972 when he was asked to serve as chief scientist for an audacious plan to send a pair of spacecraft to explore the solar system’s four giant planets for the first time.


It was the opportunity of a lifetime, but he wasn’t sure he wanted the gig.

“I hesitated because I was a fairly young professor at that point. I still had a lot of research I wanted to do,” he recalled 40 year later.

He took it anyway, and from the mission’s first encounter with Jupiter in 1979 to its final flyby of Neptune in 1989, Stone became the scientific face of the Voyager mission. He guided the science agenda and helped the public make sense of revolutionary images and data not just from Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, but from many of their fascinating moons.

Stone and his more than 200 science collaborators were the first to discover lightning on Jupiter and volcanoes on its moon Io. They spotted six never-before-seen moons around Saturn and found evidence of the largest ocean in the solar system on Jupiter’s moon Europa, as well as geysers on Neptune’s moon Triton.

“It seemed like everywhere we looked, as we encountered those planets and their moons, we were surprised,” Stone told the Los Angeles Times in 2011. “We were finding things we never imagined, gaining a clearer understanding of the environment Earth was part of. I can close my eyes and still remember every part of it.”


The Voyager 1 spacecraft became the first manmade object to reach interstellar space in 2012, and Voyager 2 followed suit in 2018.

Stone, pictured with a model of the Voyager spacecraft, said the discovery of volcanoes on Io was a highlight of the mission.


The twin probes continue to send weekly communications to Earth from interstellar space. Stone retired in 2022 on the mission’s 50th anniversary.


“A part of Ed lives on in the two Voyager spacecraft. The fingerprints of his dedication and keen leadership are woven into the Voyager mission,” said Linda Spilker, who joined the mission in 1977 and succeeded him as project scientist.

The Voyager mission was Stone’s crowning achievement, but hardly his only one.

He was a principal investigator on nine NASA missions and a co-investigator on five others, including several satellites designed to study cosmic rays, the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetic field.

He became director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in La Cañada Flintridge in 1991, a role he held for a decade.

It was an era of cost-cutting at NASA, but Stone still managed to launch Galileo’s five-year mission to Jupiter and send the Cassini spacecraft to Saturn. He was also at the agency’s helm when Mars Pathfinder delivered the Sojourner rover to the Red Planet. It marked the first time that humans had put a robotic rover on the surface of another planet.


Throughout his tenure at JPL, Stone continued to work and teach at Caltech, even teaching freshman physics during some of Voyager’s long cruise times between planets.

He also served as chairman of the board of the California Assn. for Research in Astronomy, which is responsible for building and operating the W.M. Keck Observatory and its two 10-meter telescopes on Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

Edward Carroll Stone Jr. was born in Iowa on Jan. 23, 1936, and grew up in Burlington, where his father ran a small construction business and his mother kept the company books.

The eldest of two brothers, Stone was attracted to science from a young age. Under his father’s watchful eye, he learned how to take apart and reassemble all varieties of technology, from radios to cars.

“I was always interested in learning about why something is this way and not that way,” Stone told an interviewer in 2018. “I wanted to understand and measure and observe.”


After studying physics at Burlington Junior College, he received his master’s and doctorate at the University of Chicago. Shortly after he began his graduate studies, news broke in 1957 that the former Soviet Union had launched Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite.

“Just like that, because of the Cold War and our need to match Sputnik, a whole new realm absolutely opened up,” he said.

Stone built a device for measuring the intensity of solar energetic particles above the atmosphere that hitched a ride to space aboard an Air Force satellite in 1961. Unfortunately the spacecraft’s transmitter didn’t work, so only a very limited quantity of data was returned to Earth. However, it was still enough to indicate that the intensity of the particles was lower than expected.

Despite the transmitter glitch, Stone said the project was thrilling. “We were taking the first steps in a whole new area of research and exploration,” he said. “We were right at the beginning.”

He joined the faculty at Caltech in 1964 and created more space experiments, this time for NASA.


Stone’s particular area of interest was cosmic rays — high-speed atomic nuclei that can originate from explosive events on the sun or from violent events beyond the solar system.

One of his cosmic-ray experiments was included among the 11 major Voyager experiments.

Ed Stone gestures in front of a reddish background

Ed Stone in 2011, about a year before Voyager 1 entered interstellar space.

(Al Seib / Los Angeles Times)

Colleagues praised Stone for his leadership of the Voyager science team.


“He was a great hero, a giant among men,” said Porco, adding that Stone was known to treat everyone — from top scientists to graduate students — with respect.

Voyager team scientist Thomas Donahue put it this way: “Over the years, Ed Stone has proved to be remarkably adept at keeping a bunch of prima donnas on track.”

Stone was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1984 and received the National Medal of Science from President George H.W. Bush in 1991 in recognition of his leadership of the Voyager mission. He won the Shaw Prize in Astronomy in 2019, an honor that comes with a $1.2-million award. In 2012 his hometown of Burlington, Iowa, named its new middle school after him.

“This is truly an honor because it comes from the community where my exploration journey began,” Stone told a local newspaper.

Decades after Voyager’s launch he was asked to select his favorite moment from the mission. He chose the discovery of volcanoes on Jupiter’s moon Io.


“Finding a moon that’s 100 times more active volcanically than the entire Earth, it’s really quite striking,” he said. “And this was typical of what Voyager was going to do on the rest of its journey through the outer solar system.

“Time after time, we found that nature was much more inventive than our models,” he said.

His wife, Alice, whom he met on a blind date at the University of Chicago and married in 1962, died in December. The couple are survived by their two daughters, Susan and Janet Stone, and two grandsons.

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