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Column: Moderna and Pfizer are jacking up the price of COVID vaccines. The government should stop them

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Stéphane Bancel, the chief govt of drug firm Moderna, might barely restrain his delight in issuing his annual letter to shareholders on Jan. 3.

“For the reason that starting, it has been our mission to ship on the promise of mRNA know-how for sufferers,” Bancel wrote, referring to the vaccines within the firm’s product pipeline that use quick items of genetic code to assist cells construct immunity.

“And we delivered at pace with our mRNA vaccine in opposition to COVID-19,” he continued. “As our first permitted product, it has impacted lots of of tens of millions of lives world wide. … We’re harnessing the ability of mRNA to create a brand new class of medicines and an organization that maximizes its impression on human well being.”

Moderna is dedicated to pricing that displays the worth that COVID-19 vaccines deliver to sufferers, healthcare programs, and society.

— Moderna spokesman Christopher Ridley

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A few pertinent factors have been lacking from Bancel’s 2,700 phrases of self-congratulation. One was the contribution of the federal authorities to the corporate’s success.

That included a analysis grant of virtually $1 billion from the federal government’s Biomedical Superior Analysis and Improvement Authority, or BARDA, via 2020, plus a $1.5-billion federal buy assure in 2020 for COVID vaccines earlier than testing was even accomplished — a deal that materially lowered Moderna’s monetary dangers in creating the vaccine.

Nor does that depend the tens of millions, probably billions, in federally-funded fundamental analysis at tutorial establishments and authorities laboratories in mRNA know-how— the muse of the product developed by Moderna.

Additionally glossed over was Moderna’s intention to boost the worth of its COVID vaccine from the estimated $20.69 per dose paid by the federal authorities via December 2022 for 1.2 billion doses of COVID vaccines, together with Moderna’s product and an identical mRNA formulation produced by Pfizer, to as a lot as $130 per dose.

Pfizer, which didn’t obtain federal analysis funding however did get hold of a authorities buy assure, has additionally introduced a value improve to as a lot as $130 per dose.

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Pfizer’s vaccine additionally derives from fundamental government-funded analysis; certainly, on its web site the corporate acknowledges the foundational work on mRNA know-how by Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman of the College of Pennsylvania, analysis that was funded partly by the Nationwide Institutes of Well being.

Each firms have justified the deliberate value hikes partly by citing the financial savings in healthcare prices the vaccines have produced.

In an electronic mail, a Pfizer spokesman instructed me that its vaccine and different therapies have “saved lots of of 1000’s of lives [and] tens of billions of {dollars} in well being care prices.” Pfizer “has priced the vaccine to make sure the worth is according to the worth delivered,” the e-mail stated.

Moderna makes an identical level. “Moderna is dedicated to pricing that displays the worth that COVID-19 vaccines deliver to sufferers, healthcare programs, and society,” firm spokesman Christopher Ridley stated by electronic mail.

It’s not possible to overstate the ethical depravity of this argument. The businesses are saying, in essence, that they deserve a reduce of the financial savings in lives and cash attributable to their merchandise, they usually’ll determine the dimensions of that reduce for themselves— unbiased of concerns reminiscent of the price of creating and manufacturing the medication or the impression that larger costs can have on sufferers’ entry.

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The COVID vaccines have sharply lowered mortality charges from the pandemic throughout the board.

(U.S. Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention)

No trade aside from prescribed drugs asserts that its costs must be based mostly on the upper prices of options, but it surely’s a well-known consider drug pricing. Gilead Sciences, for example, set the worth of Sovaldi and Harvoni, its hepatitis C remedies, above $80,000 for a 12-week course based mostly on the medication’ “worth premium” — the upper price of different remedies.

After a U.S. Senate committee issued a blistering report about Gilead’s pricing technique, the corporate acknowledged that the medication have been “priced consistent with the earlier requirements of care” and that the costs “are lower than the price of prior regimens, despite the fact that our therapies have considerably larger treatment charges and only a few negative effects.”

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The worth will increase of the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines virtually inevitably will translate into decrease vaccination charges, whilst executives at each vaccine firms assert that the worth will increase shall be invisible to most People.

“Anybody with business or authorities insurance coverage who’s eligible to be vaccinated ought to be capable to entry the vaccine with none out-of-pocket funds,” Pfizer govt Angela Lukin instructed Wall Avenue analysts on a convention name Oct. 20, when the corporate introduced its proposed listing value of $110 to $130 per dose.

That’s extremely deceptive, nevertheless. Underinsured or uninsured People might be charged the complete value, which might put the vaccine past their means to pay. To the extent insurers or Medicare and Medicaid would shoulder a lot of the price for his or her enrollees, it might be mirrored in larger premiums.

Pfizer says that some uninsured People shall be eligible for the corporate’s affected person help program, which covers some co-pays for its medication. However that program requires an utility and appreciable paperwork; it’s no substitute for strolling right into a pharmacy and receiving the shot on request, as has been doable via the federal government program.

Make no mistake: It is a public well being situation. The federal government’s COVID vaccination program prevented greater than 18.5 million extra hospitalizations and three.2 million extra deaths, based on analysis by the Commonwealth Fund.

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“With out vaccination, there would have been almost 120 million extra COVID-19 infections,” estimated the Commonwealth Fund, which additionally calculated that the vaccination program “saved the U.S. $1.15 trillion … in medical prices that may in any other case have been incurred.

Authorities statistics plainly present that vaccinated people have a sharply lowered COVID-related mortality fee, with the features multiplying for sufferers who’re totally vaccinated and boosted.

Although there’s no query that the vaccines have saved society cash and lives, that leaves the query of how a lot in income the producers should reap from them — in addition to calculate the price of lowered entry to those merchandise attributable to larger costs.

The list-price will increase are solely a part of the story. The opposite aspect of the coin is the revenue margin Moderna and Pfizer anticipate to see from the vaccines. Based on an evaluation by Oxfam, the mRNA vaccines might be produced for as little as $1.18 to $2.85 per dose, that means that even on the authorities value the businesses have been amassing huge income.

There would seem like loads of headroom for Moderna and Pfizer to revenue from the vaccines even at decrease costs. Pfizer has projected annual gross sales of its vaccine at $34 billion and Moderna at $18 billion to $19 billion. These estimates have been based mostly on 2022 gross sales, earlier than value will increase take impact. Authorities authorities have began to speak a few regime of annual COVID vaccine boosters, just like flu vaccines, implying a gentle stream of revenues for the businesses for years to return.

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The worth will increase replicate what Moderna and Pfizer each confer with because the transition to business advertising of the vaccines. That’s crucial as a result of the federal authorities has run out of cash to purchase doses and distribute them at no cost. Final 12 months, President Biden requested Congress for $3.9 billion “to assist guarantee prepared entry to vaccinations, testing, remedy and operational help” for People. He didn’t get it.

The impression of federal funding for Moderna has been stupendous — and a big proportion of that acquire has flowed on to shareholders. Based on the corporate’s most up-to-date quarterly report, the corporate spent $2.1 billion on analysis and growth within the first 9 months of 2022. However it spent $2.9 billion in the identical interval on inventory buybacks, which pump up the worth of its inventory.

These repurchases have been a part of $6 billion in inventory buybacks approved final 12 months by the Moderna board, of which greater than $3 billion stays obtainable. Fundamental math tells you that had Moderna not acquired its greater than $1 billion in R&D help from the federal government, it could have had at the very least that a lot much less to upstream to shareholders.

As I’ve written earlier than, it’s the cowardice of political leaders and authorities regulators that enables drug corporations reminiscent of Moderna and Pfizer to dictate larger costs for merchandise developed partly with authorities funding.

The federal government arguably has authority over pricing and distribution of merchandise developed with federal funding, such because the COVID vaccines. The important thing issue is the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, which allowed non-public firms to commercialize innovations that grew out of federally funded analysis, but it surely reserved sure rights for the federal government to guard taxpayers’ investments.

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Chief amongst them are “march-in rights.” These enable the federal government to require {that a} federally funded drug be licensed to different producers, or to supply a license itself to different drugmakers to make sure that the drug is extensively accessible. These rights might be exercised if the federal government concludes {that a} producer hasn’t taken ample steps to make a product publicly obtainable or hasn’t introduced it out on “phrases which might be cheap.”

The federal government has by no means exercised its march-in rights, although it has often threatened to take action to extract concessions from producers. However as drug costs skyrocket, stress on federal authorities to take motion is intensifying.

Prostate most cancers sufferers, for example, have been urgent the Division of Well being and Human Companies to take motion on Xtandi, a surprise drug for the illness that was developed at UCLA with substantial funding from the Pentagon and the Nationwide Institutes of Well being.

The typical wholesale value of Xtandi, for which Pfizer holds a producing license, involves $189,800 a 12 months. (UCLA had collected greater than $520 million in royalties from the drug when it offered the rights in 2016.) Thus far, Well being and Human Companies has failed even to carry a listening to on a year-old petition by prostate most cancers sufferers aimed toward bringing the drug value down by exercising march-in rights.

The COVID vaccines might be one other take a look at case. Few medication available on the market at the moment can match their capability to advance public well being and few could also be as delicate to the extent of value will increase deliberate by Moderna and Pfizer.

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It is a topic on which the federal authorities can not and shouldn’t stay silent.

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The Week in Business: The Fed Slows Down

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The Federal Reserve continued its marketing campaign to raise rates of interest to tame rising costs on Wednesday, however this time the announcement of one other improve — by 1 / 4 level — was inflected with some optimism. For starters, the transfer was smaller than the half-point improve that preceded it and far smaller than the streak of three-quarter-point jumps earlier than that. The central financial institution’s choice was additionally accompanied by uncommon excellent news from Jerome H. Powell, the Fed chair, who stated that “the disinflationary course of has began.” After all, there are caveats. Mr. Powell hinted that the Fed nonetheless deliberate to boost charges to simply above 5 p.c this yr and warned that “the job is just not absolutely performed” in tamping down inflation. Nonetheless, buyers despatched shares larger within the hope that the Fed’s price will increase have been close to an finish.

Jobs numbers soared far previous analysts’ forecasts on Friday, when the Labor Division reported that employers added 517,000 jobs in January on a seasonally adjusted foundation. These numbers had been falling since July, reaching a low of 260,000 added jobs in December. The downward development appeared to be proof that the Fed’s efforts to chill off the economic system had reached the labor market, although policymakers have been nonetheless anxious that it remained a lot too tight. January’s knowledge solely intensifies these issues. Mass layoffs in tech and different industries have additionally had little impact on the general power of the job market. Earlier within the week, the Labor Division reported that job openings had risen to 11 million, a 5.5 p.c improve, and layoffs remained at an unusually low degree.

A jury on Friday discovered that Elon Musk was not responsible for buyers’ losses when he tweeted “funding secured” in 2018, suggesting that he had lined up the financing to take Tesla non-public. Attorneys for the corporate and Mr. Musk, the chief government of Tesla and now Twitter, had argued that he was such a profitable businessman that he might have simply obtained financing to take Tesla non-public. Mr. Musk has already paid $40 million in fines to the Securities and Change Fee in a settlement over expenses of securities fraud associated to that tweet.

Robert A. Iger, Disney’s new-old chief government, faces a significant take a look at this week as Disney studies its first quarterly earnings since he returned to the function. The corporate’s board introduced him again to course appropriate after a disastrous earnings report final quarter, when Disney skilled “peak losses” and fell in need of analysts’ expectations for each income and earnings per share. Bob Chapek, the chief government on the time, had hoped to return the corporate to profitability within the fiscal yr that begins this fall, however that problem now lies within the arms of Mr. Iger. And will probably be a problem. For months, Disney has been hinting at layoffs and different cost-cutting measures that haven’t come about. Traders are additionally ready for the corporate to disclose a brand new working construction. They are going to be particularly looking forward to solutions, and outcomes, if the analysts who’re forecasting per-share earnings of about 79 cents, down from $1.06 a yr earlier, are appropriate.

The economic system is prone to be a significant topic of President Biden’s State of the Union tackle on Tuesday, the second of his presidency. As recession fears collect on the horizon, Mr. Biden will need to spotlight vibrant spots in his dealing with of the economic system: He’s virtually sure to say the power of the job market all through his tenure, which he cheers with every new report from the Labor Division, and the low price of unemployment. He’ll most likely additionally level to the latest moderation in inflation, which has strained American households over the past yr. His high financial aides, nevertheless, are cut up on how a lot to debate new spending proposals, together with investments in baby care, prekindergarten and paid depart, with some arguing that Mr. Biden ought to as a substitute focus extra on the sweeping infrastructure invoice he signed into legislation.

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Meta’s inventory surged on Thursday, including $100 billion in worth, a day after the corporate reported better-than-expected quarterly earnings and stated it might purchase again billions of {dollars} of its inventory. However Meta’s fourth-quarter report didn’t embody any significantly excellent news. Internet revenue fell 55 p.c, income fell 4 p.c and prices rose 22 p.c from a yr earlier. However on this difficult atmosphere, flat, and even barely down, can look promising to buyers and sign a change within the firm’s fortunes. They have been additionally inspired to see Meta, identified for its lavish perks and facilities, pivot to austerity. Earlier within the week, a federal decide rejected the Federal Commerce Fee’s request to dam Meta from shopping for Inside, a small digital actuality start-up. The choice is a big setback for Lina Khan, the F.T.C.’s chair, who pursued the case as a part of her mission to crack down on tech consolidation.

Step apart, pandemic puppies. Persons are shopping for inflation chickens as costs for eggs soar. A Colorado senator known as on Apple and Google to ban TikTok from their app shops. Shell, Exxon and Chevron had one other record-breaking earnings season, pulling in billions in earnings due to larger costs for practically all fuels.

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China mira hacia México para satisfacer al mercado de EE. UU.

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Invoice Chan nunca había puesto un pie en México, y mucho menos en la solitaria franja desértica del norte del país donde apruptamente decidió construir una fábrica de 300 millones de dólares. Pero eso le parecía un detalle insignificante, en medio de la presión para adaptarse a una economía world que cambia con rapidez.

Period enero de 2022 y la empresa de Chan, Man Wah Furnishings Manufacturing, enfrentaba grandes dificultades al trasladar los sofás de sus fábricas en China a los clientes en Estados Unidos. Los precios de envío se habían disparado. Washington y Pekín estaban enfrascados en una feroz guerra comercial.

Man Wah, una de las empresas de muebles más grandes de China, estaba ansiosa por fabricar sus productos en el lado norteamericano del Pacífico.

“Nuestro principal mercado es Estados Unidos”, dijo Chan, director ejecutivo de la subsidiaria mexicana de Man Wah. “No queremos perder ese mercado”.

Ese mismo objetivo explica por qué decenas de importantes empresas chinas están invirtiendo agresivamente en México, aprovechando un acuerdo comercial expansivo con América del Norte. Siguiendo un camino forjado por las empresas japonesas y surcoreanas, las firmas chinas están estableciendo fábricas que les permiten etiquetar sus productos como “Hecho en México”, y luego los transportan en camiones libres de impuestos a Estados Unidos.

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El interés de los fabricantes chinos en México forma parte de una tendencia más amplia conocida como nearshoring o deslocalización cercana. Las empresas internacionales están acercando la producción a los clientes para limitar su vulnerabilidad a los problemas de transporte y las tensiones geopolíticas.

La participación de las empresas chinas en este cambio muestra la suposición cada vez más profunda de que la brecha que divide a Estados Unidos y China será una característica duradera de la próxima fase de la globalización. Sin embargo, también revela algo elementary: más allá de las tensiones políticas, las fuerzas comerciales que unen a Estados Unidos y China son aún más poderosas.

Las empresas chinas no tienen intención de abandonar la economía estadounidense, que sigue siendo la más grande del mundo. En cambio, están estableciendo operaciones dentro del bloque comercial de América del Norte como una forma de suministrar bienes a los estadounidenses, desde productos electrónicos hasta ropa y muebles.

El estado fronterizo mexicano de Nuevo León se ha posicionado para cosechar las recompensas de esa tendencia. Dirigido por un impetuoso gobernador de 35 años, Samuel García, el estado ha cortejado la inversión extranjera mientras busca mejorar las carreteras para facilitar el paso a los cruces fronterizos.

García asistió recientemente al Foro Económico Mundial en Davos, Suiza, para reclutar más empresas.

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“Nuevo León está teniendo un alineamiento planetario geopolítico”, declaró el gobernador durante una entrevista en la capital del estado de Monterrey, dentro del palacio de gobierno, un laberinto de grandes habitaciones con techos altos y balcones que miran hacia los picos irregulares de la Sierra Madre. “Estamos recibiendo muchos asiáticos que quieren venir al mercado estadounidense”.

Desde que García asumió el cargo en octubre de 2021, se han invertido casi 7000 millones de dólares en inversiones extranjeras en Nuevo León, lo que convierte a ese estado en el mayor receptor después de Ciudad de México, según la Secretaría de Economía de México.

En 2021, las empresas chinas fueron responsables del 30 por ciento de la inversión extranjera en Nuevo León, solo superadas por Estados Unidos con el 47 por ciento.

Parte de este dinero está financiando fábricas que harán productos terminados para la venta en Estados Unidos. Pero buena parte de esas operaciones se centran en una remodelación más amplia de la cadena de suministro world.

A medida que la pandemia interrumpió la industria china y colapsó los puertos, las empresas con fábricas en Estados Unidos sufrieron escasez de piezas manufacturadas en Asia. Ahora muchas compañías exigen que sus proveedores establezcan plantas en América del Norte o corren el riesgo de perder su negocio.

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Lizhong, un fabricante chino de rines para automóviles, está construyendo la primera fábrica de la compañía fuera de Asia en un parque industrial en Nuevo León. Los principales clientes de Lizhong, incluidos Ford y Common Motors, presionaron a la empresa para que abriera una fábrica en América del Norte, según Wang Bing, su gerente common para México.

Una empresa de Corea del Sur, DY Energy, que fabrica componentes para equipos de construcción, está considerando el norte de México para instalar una fábrica cerca de un importante cliente en Texas.

“Después de pasar por la pandemia y la disaster de la cadena de suministro debido al cierre de China por la covid, a muchos fabricantes norteamericanos les gustaría eliminar el riesgo”, dijo Sean Website positioning, ejecutivo de DY Energy con sede en Seattle.

“La globalización ha terminado”, declaró. “Ahora se habla de local-ización”.

César Santos ha hecho una apuesta sustancial respecto a que esos pronunciamientos resulten ciertos.

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Santos, un abogado corporativo de 65 años, dirige una empresa secundaria como desarrollador en Monterrey, una ciudad industrial en auge llena de restaurantes de lujo, centros comerciales resplandecientes y spas.

Hace una década, se le acercó un desarrollador en Los Ángeles que representaba a una empresa electrónica china que estaba contemplando construir una fábrica en México. Santos controlaba un activo de gran interés: una parcela de 849 hectáreas.

Salpicada de cactus, la propiedad se encontraba a menos de 241 kilómetros de la frontera con Texas. Mientras los estados vecinos luchaban con la violencia vinculada al narcotráfico, Nuevo León tenía una reputación de seguridad. El estado contaba con una fuerza laboral altamente calificada, dada la presencia de universidades que producían en masa graduados de ingeniería, entre ellas el Tec de Monterrey, a menudo denominado “el MIT de México”.

La tierra había sido el rancho ganadero de su familia cuando Santos period un niño, el escenario de aventuras a caballo. Ahora ve una oportunidad lucrativa para convertirlo en un parque industrial.

Hizo un viaje a China, en un tren de alta velocidad desde Shanghái hasta la ciudad de Hangzhou, frente a un lago, para reunirse con Holley Group, que había construido un parque industrial para empresas chinas en Tailandia.

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“China period un país que había desarrollado todo muy rápido”, dijo Santos. “Estaba realmente asombrado”.

Para 2015, se unió a Holley y otro socio chino para forjar una empresa conjunta, Hofusan Actual Property. Planean una purple de almacenes y fábricas frente a un lodge y apartamentos temporales para gerentes visitantes, además de más de 12.000 hogares para trabajadores.

El Grupo Holley envió a Jiang Xin para supervisar la empresa. Antes había trabajado en el proyecto de esa empresa en Tailandia. Pero México representaba una propuesta diferente.

“Las empresas chinas no tenían thought de México, y las únicas cosas que sabíamos eran cosas malas, cosas peligrosas”, dijo Jiang. “Luego vino Trump”.

Cuando asumió la presidencia en 2017, Donald Trump exigió que las empresas estadounidenses abandonaran China. Para 2018, estaba aplicando fuertes aranceles a cientos de miles de millones de dólares en importaciones chinas.

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“Lo de los aranceles nos ayudó”, dijo Jiang. “Las empresas chinas querían más opciones. Y nosotros somos una de sus opciones”.

Cuando Chan comenzó a contemplar la posibilidad de operar en México en el otoño de 2021, otras 27 empresas chinas ya habían asegurado terrenos dentro del parque Hofusan. Solo quedaba un predio grande.

Man Wah ya había respondido a los aranceles construyendo una fábrica en Vietnam y usándola con el fin de manufacturar productos para el mercado estadounidense. Pero el precio altísimo de los envíos empobreció esa estrategia.

Cada mes, Man Wah estaba moviendo 3500 contenedores de 12 metros a través del Pacífico desde Vietnam. De repente, los viajes que costaban 2000 dólares se incrementaron 10 veces más.

Chan usó la plataforma de redes sociales china, WeChat, para conectarse con Jiang. Sus preguntas eran contundentes. ¿Qué tan pronto podría Man Wah comenzar la construcción? (Inmediatamente). ¿Cómo estaban las carreteras? (No eran excelentes, pero estaban mejorando). ¿Había algún restaurante chino auténtico en los alrededores? (No).

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En cuestión de semanas, Man Wah se comprometió a comprar el terreno. En enero de 2022, Chan firmó el contrato antes de abordar un vuelo a México, dejando atrás a su esposa y sus dos hijos en la ciudad china de Shenzhen.

Mientras se construye la nueva fábrica, Man Wah ya ha comenzado a producir sofás en una pequeña planta cercana que alquilaron.

Incluso antes de ubicar el sitio temporal, Chan cargó 70 contenedores llenos de maquinaria y materias primas en China y los puso en un barco con destino a México.

“Siempre hacemos las cosas rápido”, dijo. “No te preocupes por nada, solo hazlo”.

Man Wah se preocupa por algunas cosas: contratar suficientes trabajadores y cultivar proveedores locales.

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La empresa tiene planes de fabricar cerca de 900.000 piezas de mueblería al año en México. Eso requerirá contratar y retener a 6000 trabajadores.

Man Wah está acostumbrado a operar en China y Vietnam, donde los sindicatos independientes están básicamente prohibidos y la gente de las zonas rurales acude a las zonas industriales en busca de trabajo.

En Nuevo León, la tasa de desempleo es de 3,6 por ciento. El aumento de la inversión ha desencadenado una feroz competencia por los trabajadores.

Las empresas astutas han cortejado a sus empleados con extras como comidas de calidad y transporte al trabajo. Pero Man Wah y otras empresas chinas responden a los jefes en China, que están condicionados hacia el ahorro mientras piensan en los trabajadores como fácilmente remplazables.

Encontrar proveedores locales también es un desafío. Según los términos del acuerdo comercial de América del Norte, los fabricantes deben emplear porcentajes mínimos de piezas y materias primas de la región para calificar para el acceso libre de impuestos a los demás países del bloque.

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Hace tres años, Lenovo, el fabricante chino de computadoras, abrió una nueva fábrica en Monterrey dedicada a fabricar servidores, los dispositivos que almacenan datos para la computación en la nube.

Hasta el año pasado, Lenovo traía un componente essential, las llamadas placas base, desde una fábrica en China. Pero a medida que se intensificaron los problemas de transporte internacional, la empresa cambió a un proveedor en la ciudad mexicana de Guadalajara.

Lenovo también dejó de importar materiales de embalaje de China y, en cambio, los compra en México.

Pero continúa importando muchos componentes clave de China, desde dispositivos de memoria hasta cables especializados.

“No existe una cadena de suministro para estas cosas en México”, dijo Leandro Sardela, director de operaciones occidentales de la empresa.

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Peter S. Goodman es corresponsal de economía mundial, con sede en Nueva York. Antes fue corresponsal de economía mundial con sede en Londres y corresponsal económico nacional en Nueva York durante la Gran Recesión. También trabajó en The Washington Publish como jefe de la oficina de Shanghái. @petersgoodman

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Value Stocks? Growth Stocks? Markets Last Year Turned Everything Topsy-Turvy.

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These conclusions are a startling signal of how a lot the world and its monetary markets have been battered within the final yr or two.

Till the S&P Indices findings, for instance, Exxon and Chevron had been virtually universally labeled as worth shares. Within the pondering that prevailed a few years in the past, an pressing want to handle international warming impaired the long-term viability of fossil gasoline corporations. Even amongst traders who favored their shares, these corporations have been presumed to be a great worth exactly as a result of they have been so retro.

Final yr, at the very least, these assumptions about progress and worth shares have been overturned, together with many different presumptions in regards to the world.

Russia’s yearlong battle in Ukraine set off a sequence of unanticipated shocks that elevated world oil and gasoline costs. Vitality costs have come down a bit, however nonetheless stay excessive.

Publicly traded power corporations had outsize good points in gross sales, income and inventory costs. Exxon and Chevron have each reported document income for final yr. The S&P 500 dropped greater than 18 % in 2022, however power was the one sector to rise, with an eye-popping complete return of just about 67 %, together with dividends. The sector’s gross sales, worth and earnings momentum remodeled its greatest elements into progress shares, at the very least within the backward-looking lens utilized by S&P 500 Indices.

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On the identical time, the eight huge tech corporations stumbled, for idiosyncratic causes, in addition to systemic ones. Tesla, for instance, faces severe competitors out there for electrical autos, even because the Twitter escapades of its proprietor, Elon Musk, could also be turning off some would-be automotive consumers. Meta reported a unbroken decline in gross sales and earnings on Wednesday, although its inventory soared on plans for additional share buybacks, amid a broad inventory market rally fueled by hopes that the Federal Reserve’s rate of interest will increase have been abating. Nonetheless, the dimensions of its unprofitable investments in digital actuality have apprehensive many traders. Netflix, which as soon as stated it competed solely with sleep for the eye of its subscribers, now jousts with a horde of streaming corporations.

However, in broad phrases, two real-world components are liable for their reclassification this yr. First, whereas the preliminary, lockdown section of the Covid-19 pandemic usually elevated tech corporations’ gross sales and income in 2020 and 2021, it set them up for a pointy decline of their progress charges in 2022 because the financial system recovered.

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