Adults over age 60 who want to stave off memory loss could benefit from taking a daily multivitamin supplement, suggests a recent study from Columbia University in New York and Brigham and Women’s Hospital/Harvard in Boston.
“Daily multivitamin supplementation improved memory in older adults after one year, an effect that was sustained, on average, over the three years of follow up,” Adam M. Brickman, PhD, professor of neuropsychology at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, told Fox News Digital.
During the study — published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition — more than 3,500 adults over age 60 were randomly assigned to take either a daily multivitamin or a placebo for a three-year period.
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At the end of each year, the participants completed self-administered cognitive tests to determine the strength of their memory.
After the first year, those taking the multivitamin showed memory improvement compared to the placebo group — an effect that continued over the entire course of the study.
In a previous 2022 study published in the Alzheimer’s & Dementia Journal, researchers found that older adults who took daily multivitamins experienced improved cognition, memory and executive function.
Study marked by some limitations
The effects of the multivitamin were seen only in certain aspects of memory, pointed out Dr. Owen Deland from the division of geriatrics at the Center for Healthy Senior Living at Hackensack University Medical Center in New Jersey. (He was not involved in the study.)
“Improvements were seen in specific areas of memory like immediate recall, but not in executive function (decision-making) or object recognition in the multivitamin group compared with placebo,” Deland told Fox News Digital.
“There are risk factors that we don’t know about yet, and I believe nutrition is a significant one.”
There was also a sampling bias, with the bulk of the patients in the study falling into a certain demographic, as lead researcher Brickman pointed out.
“The study participants were predominantly White with high education, and therefore not representative of the U.S. population,” he told Fox News Digital.
“The demographic composition of the participants limits our ability to generalize the findings.”
Additionally, the participants were in generally good health without heart disease, cancer or history of stroke, Deland pointed out.
“Whether or not these observations can be applied to the general public remains to be studied,” he said.
Heart disease link interesting to note
People who had cardiovascular disease experienced a bigger memory boost from the multivitamins, the study found.
The heart disease link was particularly interesting to Dr. Donna Raziano, a geriatrician and medical director at Inspira LIFE in New Jersey, who did not work on the study.
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“There are many different types of dementia — vascular, Alzheimer’s, Lewy-Body and mixed,” she told Fox News Digital. “The fact that this study shows prevention of cognitive decline with underlying cardiovascular disease shows that [the multivitamins could] prevent vascular dementia.”
Vascular dementia is a type of cognitive decline caused by impaired blood flow to the brain, per the Mayo Clinic.
While it often occurs after a stroke, it can also result from other conditions that interrupt the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the brain.
Multivitamins not always essential, but can be beneficial
While it may seem that multivitamins are beneficial to everyone, “the common thinking in the past has been that they don’t benefit older adults, especially in the setting of a healthy, balanced diet,” according to Hackensack’s Deland.
“However, the increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in the U.S. suggests that there are risk factors we don’t know about yet, and I believe nutrition is a significant one,” he went on.
Given that numerous studies have suggested that diets low in nutrient density or high in highly processed ingredients can increase the chances of someone developing cognitive impairment, Deland believes that supplementing the diet with multivitamins may help preserve cognitive function.
“This is especially important in the care of our elderly population, for whom access to fresh, nutritious food is limited by availability, accessibility and cost,” Deland said.
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“I’ve found that it’s easier to get patient buy-in through suggesting vitamin supplementation rather than just saying, ‘Eat better’ — not to mention that it’s simpler to take one multivitamin than numerous individual vitamin supplements,” he added.
As far as specific vitamins and minerals that actually deliver the memory boost, Deland noted that large review studies suggest that B vitamins, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium and zinc are most relevant to cognitive performance — and that a deficiency in them is relatively common.
“And while they are not technically vitamins, the compounds resveratrol (found in grapes, berries and red wine), quercetin (found in unprocessed fruits and vegetables) and curcumin may all have benefit in preserving cognition into later life,” he added.
Vitamin D deficiency is linked to worse cognition in later life, Deland said, while omega-3 fatty acid intake has been shown to aid in memory and cognitive function.
Doctor input is key
Older adults who are considering taking a daily multivitamin should talk to their physicians about whether supplementation is appropriate for them, Brickman noted.
This study was geared toward cognitive or memory changes that occur with normal aging, the researcher pointed out.
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“Our data do not suggest a treatment or preventative strategy for diseases that affect memory, like Alzheimer’s disease,” he clarified.
“If older adults are concerned about their memory, they should seek an evaluation by a memory specialist and/or speak to their doctors about their concerns.”
Particularly for adults who are already taking other supplements, it’s important to check with a doctor before adding a multivitamin to the mix, Raziano noted.
Too many vitamins could cause “toxicity and a potential overdose.”
“There’s always the risk of polypharmacy,” she warned. “We don’t want [people] taking too much of anything, which could lead to vitamin toxicity and a potential overdose.”
Deland agreed with this. “Always discuss supplementation and dietary changes with your doctor,” he said. “While there is a potential benefit to multivitamin supplementation, other supplements may have important interactions with medications or medical conditions.”
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One benefit of multivitamins, however, is that the contents of the pills are pretty tightly controlled, Raziano pointed out.
She recommends going with a high-quality Centrum brand-name multivitamin; check to make sure it’s a fresh, non-expired bottle.
In addition to potentially taking multivitamins, Deland stressed the importance of prioritizing fresh, unprocessed foods and getting frequent aerobic exercise totaling at least 150 minutes weekly, “to preserve your independence and your mind.”
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Ask a doc: ‘What should I know before getting a breast lift?’
A growing number of women are opting to reverse gravity by getting a surgical breast-lift procedure.
The prevalence of breast lifts has risen 70% since 2000 — twice the growth of breast implant surgery, according to new statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons.
“A breast lift — or ‘mastopexy’ — is a procedure in which excess skin is removed to tighten the breast envelope,” said New York-based plastic surgeon and breast reconstruction specialist Dr. Constance M. Chen in comments to Fox News Digital.
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“This also repositions the breast tissue and the nipple-areolar complex higher on the chest wall.”
Why do women opt for breast lifts?
All women’s breasts change with time and gravity, Chen noted.
“As women get older, it is typical and natural for the skin to lose elasticity and for the breasts to drop,” she said.
Breastfeeding is the biggest cause of this, she said; but occasionally some women who did not breastfeed may find that their breasts droop over time.
“Menopause is also a factor, because dense, glandular breast tissue is replaced by fat — and fatty tissue is softer and less firm,” Chen said.
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”If a woman is unhappy about sagging breasts, the only way to fix it is surgery,” the doctor said. “A well-fitted bra can provide support for a better look in clothes, but exercises to firm the underlying chest muscles won’t impact the breast tissue itself.”
In most cases, a mastopexy will not change the size of the breasts, even though the result may make the breasts appear fuller and rounder, according to Chen.
“In cases where a woman wants larger or smaller breasts, additional procedures such as augmentation or reduction can be done in conjunction with a breast lift,” she said.
Dr. Brian Reagan of CosmetiCare, who practices in San Diego, California, said many patients come to his practice for lifts after they have children — usually a few months post-breastfeeding.
“The breasts will change for months after breastfeeding, so we want to wait a minimum of three months,” he told Fox News Digital.
Types of breast lifts
There are several different mastopexy procedures depending on the degree of lift needed, Chen advised.
A “crescent lift” is the least invasive procedure. In this case, a crescent of skin at the top of the nipple-areolar complex is removed to improve the position of the nipple, Chen said.
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“The crescent lift is called for when the breasts are basically perky, but the woman wants her nipple-areolar complex adjusted upward slightly,” the doctor noted.
“In cases where a woman also wants bigger breasts, the crescent lift can be performed in conjunction with breast augmentation.”
A “Benelli lift” is also used to provide a small lift for barely drooping breasts.
“Here, a doughnut-shaped incision is made around the nipple-areolar complex, and the skin is tightened,” Chen said. “While this kind of breast lift is less invasive than a full lift, it can have the side effect of flattening the breast. An implant can be used to improve the projection of the breast.”
A “lollipop lift,” or a short-scar vertical mastopexy, is used when the breast tissue itself needs to be positioned higher on the chest wall, the doctor noted.
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“The short-scar vertical mastopexy refers to the limited scars around the nipple-areolar complex and then vertically to the fold below the breast, which looks like a lollipop,” Chen said. “In this procedure, more breast skin is removed, and the underlying breast tissue is repositioned to significantly change the breast shape and lift it up.”
Finally, an “anchor lift” — or the traditional Wise-pattern mastopexy — adds a horizontal scar along the crease below the breast to the same scars of the vertical mastopexy, which allows for reshaping and repositioning of the tissue.
“This is an older procedure used by older surgeons not trained in the vertical mastopexy, who are particularly prone to using it when there is significant sagging in large breasts,” Chen noted.
The vertical and the Wise-pattern mastopexies are both full breast lifts that are equally effective in creating a perkier, more youthful result, according to Chen.
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“The vertical mastopexy is also called the ‘short-scar mastopexy’ because it eliminates the horizontal scar in the inframammary fold,” she said. “It is an improvement on the anchor lift.”
She added, “The full mastopexy is the most commonly performed breast lift, because it is usually the appropriate technique for someone who wants a noticeable change to their breast appearance.”
Risks of breast lifts
Every plastic surgery procedure comes with some degree of risk — and breast lifts are no exception.
Reagan said the main risks associated with breast lifts are a decrease in nipple sensation, potential loss of tissue (including the nipple) and poor scarring.
Due to elevated risk, there are certain groups of people who are not good candidates for the procedure, he said.
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He advises against smokers getting a breast lift, for example.
“Actively smoking can cause delayed healing and possible open wounds,” Reagan said.
He recommends kicking the habit at least six to eight weeks prior to surgery.
People who have existing medical issues, such as high blood pressure or diabetes, are also not good candidates, the doctor warned.
“The ideal candidate is someone who is healthy, has no medical issues and has deflated, droopy breasts,” he said.
For more Health articles, visit www.foxnews.com/health.
Broasted Chicken: All You Need For Crispy-Outside, Juicy-Inside Fried Chicken Is *This* Genius Lid Technique
When it comes to fried chicken, we’ve heard so many different tricks and family secrets for getting the crunchiest and juiciest bites, from soaking in buttermilk to using a special blend of seasonings. And here’s another twist that recently caught our attention: “broasting.” This method uses pressure cooking and deep-frying to cook every part of the chicken evenly. The result: fried chicken that’s less greasy, yet is still moist and coated in a deliciously crispy crust. It’s the secret behind so many restaurant’s amazing fried chicken, and while traditional broasting uses a one-of-a-kind machine that simultaneously steams and fries, you don’t need an appliance to create broasted-style chicken — simply using a sturdy skillet and lid will do the trick. Here’s the scoop on broasted chicken and an easy recipe to make the next time you’re craving this comfort food classic!
What it means when chicken is “broasted”
Broasting is different from traditional, open pan-frying methods as it involves a special pressure fryer (don’t worry, though, you don’t need this as you’ll learn below). Brian Jupiter, executive chef and owner of the restaurants Frontier and Ina Mae Tavern in Chicago, notes that this machine fries the chicken in a closed environment. This creates steam and pressure that seals in the meat’s juices. It also prevents sudden drops in oil temperature that could cause the chicken to become greasy. “Broasting pressurizes the chamber of frying oil, allowing temperatures to stay consistently high for a certain amount of time,” he explains. “This creates a lighter and even crisper texture on the chicken.”
Jupiter adds that broasting was invented by engineer L.A.M Phelan in the 1950s. He designed equipment that pressure-fried chicken quickly and thoroughly, and his machine was eventually mass-produced specifically for restaurants and fast food chains, where broasting remains a staple method for frying large batches of chicken. But, you don’t need a clunky and pricey broasting machine to achieve the same golden brown and succulent results at home.
How to mimic the broasting method
A key aspect of broasting is steam, which is generated when the fryer is covered and the pressurized settings are applied. Although it’s tricky to create that same level of pressure in a normal skillet, cookbook author Pam Anderson says you can mimic the method with just a lid. The trick: “As soon as I get all my chicken pieces in the skillet, I cover the skillet for the first half of cooking time, then uncover it for the second half.”.The lid traps in moisture and heat to steam the meat while helping maintain a consistent oil temperature. Removing it halfway through lets the skin get nice and crispy.
Food writer and biochemist Shirley Corriher also swears by covering the pan during the first half of the frying process. “Covering the skillet does make a racket, though — it’s the drops of condensed moisture dropping into the oil that create all that carrying-on,” she says. This is why it’s a good idea to have an oil shield like BergKoch’s Splatter Screen (Buy from Amazon, $10.99) handy to prevent grease from splattering and making cleanup more of a hassle.
Hungry for broasted-style chicken? If so, we’ve got the perfect recipe for you!
A delicious broasted-inspired chicken recipe
Our Southern Fried Chicken recipe takes inspiration from the broasting method to create moist dark and white meat. Additionally, this recipe coats the chicken in self-rising flour instead of all-purpose for an even crunchier crust. Clearly, this recipe has all the makings for a finger-licking batch of fried chicken that your crowd will love!
Southern Fried Chicken
- 2 qts. vegetables or canola oil
- 2 tsp. garlic powder
- 1 tsp. salt
- ½ tsp. pepper
- 3 eggs
- ½ cup hot pepper sauce, such as Tabasco
- 1 cup self-rising flour
- 1 (3 to 4 lb.) chicken, cut into 8 pieces
- Active: 30 mins
- Total time: 1 hr
- Yield: 6 servings
- In large pot or deep fryer, heat oil over medium-high heat until very hot but not smoking, about 350°F. Place rack over large rimmed baking sheet.
- In small bowl, combine garlic powder, salt and pepper. In shallow bowl, whisk together eggs and hot sauce. Spread flour in shallow dish or pie pan.
- Heat oven to 200°F. Sprinkle all sides of chicken pieces with garlic mixture; dip each piece into egg mixture, letting excess drip off back into bowl, then coat with flour, shaking off excess.
- Place first batch of chicken in skillet, cover and cook 8 to 10 minutes. Remove lid, flip and cook another 8 to 10 minutes or until golden brown and internal temperature registers 165ºF. (Check chicken after 5 minutes; if browning too quickly, flip pieces and reduce heat to medium).
- Transfer cooked chicken to rack on baking sheet. Place baking sheet in oven to keep warm while frying remaining chicken. Serve with favorite sides and enjoy!
To whip up more hearty classics at home, check out the recipes below:
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