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Elon Musk Hopes to Test a Brain Implant in Humans Next Year

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In a presentation showcasing the Neuralink implant that Elon Musk hopes will sometime join the human mind to a pc, two monkeys had been reportedly shifting pc cursors with their brains.

The feat was first documented by others in a human in 2006 within the pre-YouTube period and with expertise that’s much more cumbersome, mooring sufferers to a pc with a twine.

Mr. Musk’s presentation on Wednesday evening provided little that was considerably new from earlier demonstrations of the gadget. He continued to assert that the implant might make pc management attainable for folks with paralysis exterior of a lab setting. However consultants within the discipline questioned whether or not the demonstration confirmed main progress with the gadget, particularly given the breadth of labor underway nationwide.

“These are incremental advances,” Daniel Yoshor, a neurosurgeon and neuroscientist on the Perelman College of Drugs on the College of Pennsylvania who has labored with related gadgets, stated after watching the presentation. “The {hardware} is spectacular however doesn’t signify a dramatic advance in restoring or enhancing mind operate.”

Neuralink doesn’t have approval from the Meals and Drug Administration to promote the gadget. Mr. Musk stated on Wednesday that the corporate had submitted most of its paperwork to the company to hunt permission to implant its gadget in a human. He predicted a check in people in six months, however any step towards trials in folks could be as much as the F.D.A. after a full analysis of the dangers of surgical implantation and security of the gadget.

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Neuralink initially scheduled the occasion for the top of October, earlier than Mr. Musk, a multibillionaire, postponed the presentation amid one of many extra chaotic months of his profession. He not too long ago accomplished his off-again, on-again buy of Twitter, which has commanded a lot of his consideration — and generated appreciable controversy — over administration of the social media firm.

Whereas Mr. Musk juggles that and different duties — he additionally oversees the electrical carmaker Tesla and the rocket firm SpaceX — Neuralink is rising from a interval of change. Final 12 months, Max Hodak, the corporate’s president and one in every of its co-founders, left to launch his personal enterprise within the discipline. Neuralink’s chief government is formally Jared Birchall, a wealth supervisor who runs Mr. Musk’s household workplace.

Wednesday evening’s presentation targeted on the “Hyperlink” gadget, which resembles an inch-wide stack of a number of cash with a whole lot of hair-thin threads. A surgical robotic would minimize a gap within the cranium and slip the electrode threads into the grey matter of the mind, based on Mr. Musk’s 2020 firm presentation. The coin-like piece would sit flush with the cranium.

Leaders within the discipline of brain-computer interface expertise have been intently watching Neuralink’s funding in a tool that operated with out protruding wires or {hardware}. But Mr. Musk’s displays up to now have involved and underwhelmed a lot of them.

A 2021 Neuralink presentation of a monkey enjoying the online game Pong along with his thoughts was much like a primate demonstration at Brown College in 2001, although it had a far clunkier system.

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In a 2020 presentation showcasing a pig with the implant, Mr. Musk prompt the gadget might “clear up” circumstances together with paralysis and insomnia and will even give a person “superhuman imaginative and prescient.” Such functions sound like science fiction to scientists who’re singularly targeted on restoring fundamental capabilities, like typing, talking or lifting a fork, to those that have misplaced them after a spinal twine damage or a dire analysis. For such sufferers, the advantages weigh favorably towards the small, however severe, threat of mind surgical procedure.

“Nobody is speaking about implanting able-bodied folks,” stated Cindy Chestek, an affiliate professor of biomedical engineering on the College of Michigan whose lab is engaged on restoring operate to amputees.

On Wednesday evening, Mr. Musk stated plans for his gadget included making the blind see and giving somebody with a severed spinal twine “full-body performance.” The claims drew applause from the viewers, however don’t mirror the state of the sphere.

“I’d not say that with confidence,” Dr. Yoshor stated after Mr. Musk had claimed the Neuralink gadget would give sight to individuals who have by no means seen earlier than. “I’d be extremely uncertain of this sort of gadget in a affected person with congenital blindness.”

Security would be the F.D.A.’s main concern in contemplating whether or not the gadget may very well be examined in people, stated Cristin Welle, an affiliate professor of neuroscience on the College of Colorado, who helped draft F.D.A. steerage on brain-computer implants earlier than leaving the company in 2016.

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Dr. Welle stated regulators will concentrate on whether or not the gadget would harm the mind or current unreasonable dangers to sufferers. She stated gadget sturdiness would even be thought-about, given the potential for mind fluids to eat by means of insulation coating the a whole lot of hairlike electrodes on the Hyperlink gadget.

To this point, Neuralink has examined the gadget on sheep, pigs and primates, based on data filed with the Agriculture Division.

A number of different corporations and scientists have already obtained approval from the F.D.A. to check related gadgets in people. In 2004, researchers carried out human trials with the Utah array, a tool the dimensions of a child aspirin and fitted with spikes that’s surgically positioned on the mind. It connects by means of a wire to a small pc put in on the top that transmits to a pc. This neural interface system known as BrainGate.

With the items in place, scientists search patterns within the electrical present of neurons that sign the mind’s intention to kind letters or carry a hand. The code, in flip, instructions a pc or robotic to carry out the duty.

Almost three dozen sufferers have undergone testing with the Utah array gadget. Utilizing the expertise, folks with paralysis or different disabilities have lifted a cinnamon latte with a robotic arm in 2011, typed letters quoting Shakespeare in 2012 and lifted forkfuls of mashed potatoes in 2016.

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However the Utah array isn’t suited to long-term use. It rises up out of the cranium, tethers customers to a twine linked to a pc and exposes them to the chance of a mind an infection. For these and different causes, corporations like Neuralink are working to construct gadgets which are absolutely implanted.

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WHO updates list of medicines governments should stockpile in case of a nuclear emergency

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The World Well being Group launched an up to date report on Friday detailing medicines that governments ought to have readily available within the occasion of a radiological or nuclear emergency. 

Governments ought to have a nationwide stockpile of private protecting gear, but in addition a spread of prescribed drugs, together with potassium iodide tablets, antiemetics, anti-diarrhoeal brokers, decorporating brokers, alkylating brokers, and different medicines, WHO stated. 

“It’s important that governments are ready to guard the well being of populations and reply instantly to emergencies,” Dr. Maria Neira, the Appearing Assistant Director-Basic at WHO, stated in an announcement on Friday. “This consists of having prepared provides of lifesaving medicines that can scale back dangers and deal with accidents from radiation.” 

Marcin Rossak, an area firefighter opens a field of iodine tablets in Milanowek Hearth station, one of many distribution factors, in Milanowek, Poland on October 10, 2022.
(Artur Widak/Anadolu Company by way of Getty Photos)

Radiological disasters may end up from an accident at a nuclear energy plant or the intentional detonation of a nuclear bomb in armed battle. 

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WHO didn’t title any particular battle, however the specter of a radiological catastrophe has turn into clear worldwide over the previous yr amid Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. 

RUSSIA’S NUCLEAR AGENCY HELPS MILITARY SIDESTEP SANCTIONS: REPORT

Worldwide Atomic Power Company Director Basic Rafael Mariano Grossi stated this month stated his company is establishing a “steady presence of nuclear security and safety consultants” at Ukraine’s nuclear amenities to “assist forestall a nuclear accident throughout the present navy battle.” 

Russian officers have additionally repeatedly reminded the world that it has weapons of mass destruction, with Putin ally Dmitry Medvedev, the Deputy chairman of Russia’s Safety Council, saying final week that the “lack of a nuclear energy in a standard conflict can provoke the start of a nuclear conflict.”

A Russian serviceman patrols the territory of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Station in Energodar on May 1, 2022. 

A Russian serviceman patrols the territory of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Energy Station in Energodar on Could 1, 2022. 
(ANDREY BORODULIN/AFP by way of Getty Photos)

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WHO’s report on Friday updates an inventory from 2007, and the group stated extra novel therapies might be on the way in which. 

“Analysis is making progress in creating novel therapies and attaining technical advances that will end in new merchandise to be used throughout a radiation emergency,” the report reads. 

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Does Your Dog Hate Nail Trims? Here’s How To Give Them a Stress-Free “Pawdicure”

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Many individuals pay prime greenback for another person to beautify their fingers and toenails. However for our furry associates, getting their nails trimmed is usually a scary expertise. In case your canine hates nail trims, you know the way troublesome it’s to get the job carried out. You need to wrestle them to remain nonetheless, and once they inevitably wiggle, you threat slicing their nail too quick, inflicting ache and bleeding. Sure, you may take your canine to a vet or groomer, however that doesn’t imply the expertise shall be much less traumatic for them — although it definitely will stress your pockets. By trimming Fido’s nails at house, you may bond, construct belief, and get monetary savings. What’s to not love? Try the following pointers for trimming your canine’s nails at house and giving them a stress-free spaw day. 

How typically must you trim your canine’s nails?

In case your canine hates nail trims, even doing it as sometimes as twice a yr can really feel like an excessive amount of — nevertheless it’s essential to maintain their nails quick. If the nails develop too lengthy, your canine might expertise painful stress or develop an unnatural posture that may trigger critical joint points, in accordance with Dr. Karen Gellman for Canines Naturally Journal. In case your canine is lively, their nails could not develop lengthy as rapidly, as a result of they’re grinding them down by working round. However Dr. Gellman suggests you need to trim — or not less than examine — your canine’s nails each two to a few weeks.

What ought to I exploit to trim my canine’s nails?

The preferred instruments for trimming your canine’s nails at house are clippers and nail grinders, that are electrical instruments with a rotating emery board that file the nail down as an alternative of slicing. There are professionals and cons to every instrument, and which you utilize is fully depending on you and your canine. Whichever instrument you’re feeling most assured wielding — and whichever seems least traumatic in your canine — is the suitable instrument for you. Whether or not you go along with clippers or a nail grinder, there are some essential issues to remember. 

In the event you use clippers:

  • Use scissor-style clippers (Purchase from Amazon, $12.99) as an alternative of guillotine-style ones, recommends Dr. Gellman. Scissor-style clippers cleanly minimize the nail, whereas guillotine-style clippers can crush it, which is painful. 
  • Hold your clippers sharp. In the event that they begin to uninteresting, exchange them. 
  • Solely minimize small bits at a time to keep away from slicing too far. 
  • Use smaller clippers for higher management. 
  • Hold clippers parallel to the nail when trimming.

In the event you use a nail grinder:

  • The American Kennel Membership says to maintain fur out of the best way so it doesn’t get caught. 
  • Use a instrument that’s particularly made for trimming your canine’s nails (Purchase from Amazon, $19.99).
  • Grind throughout the nail’s backside, after which rigorously transfer in from the tip, being cautious to clean out tough bits. 
  • Maintain nail grinder larger up for higher management. 

What if I minimize my canine’s nail too quick?

Within the heart of your canine’s nail is the “fast,” which is the place the blood vessels and nerves sit. should you minimize into it, your canine will expertise ache and bleeding. In the event you by accident minimize your canine’s fast, apply stress for about two minutes after which use styptic powder, an anti-hemorrhagic agent to cease the bleeding, recommends PetMD. In a pinch, you may also use baking flour or corn starch, provides Dr. Gellman. 

With the intention to keep away from slicing the short, you should be cautious. In case your canine has light-colored nails, you may see it; but when your canine has darkish nails, it might be a bit of harder to determine. Dr. Gellman recommends you solely minimize the nail till you see a white ring with a dark-colored dot within the heart. If there’s no white, you may minimize a bit of extra, however solely in small increments. “The insensitive nail will present as chalky ring across the delicate fast,” she explains.

Suggestions for Stress-Free Trimming

Regardless of how properly you put together, trimming your canine’s nails is usually a troublesome expertise for each of you. Excellent news: There are some simple steps you may take to set your self up for fulfillment and make trim time a extra paw-sitive bonding expertise. The following pointers are from Concern Free Pets. 

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Tip #1: Put together the house.

If you go to a spa, you’re instantly welcomed by soothing sounds, sights, and smells. These components put you in a restful headspace so you may loosen up. Do the identical factor in your canine: Present a tender, non-slip floor for them to relaxation on, play calming music, and use scents like lavender within the room. It’s additionally essential that you’ve your canine’s favourite treats inside attain.

Tip #2: Put together your pooch. 

Leaping proper into the nail trim with out first familiarizing your canine with the method could cause further upset. Concern Free Pets recommends slowly introducing your canine to every aspect of the nail trim, and rewarding them with treats after each step to create optimistic associations. For instance, present your canine the instrument you’re utilizing. Allow them to sniff and examine, then reward. In the event you’re utilizing a nail grinder, flip it on so your canine can hear the sound. In the event you’re utilizing clippers, snip a chunk of dry pasta to simulate the noise of nail clipping. Contact their paws, gently squeezing the toes as should you’re trimming their nails. And once more, bear in mind to closely reward your pup at every step. Going by means of the method permits them to really feel extra acquainted and assured, so when it comes time to really trim these nails, they gained’t really feel caught off-guard. 

Tip #3: Take note of your canine’s cues. 

Trimming your canine’s nails takes endurance. If they’re displaying any indicators of misery, pushing ahead and trimming anyway will solely make the expertise scarier for them. Take note of your canine’s physique language: in the event that they’re leaning or pulling away, licking their lips excessively, shaking, tucking their nail, or pinning their ears to their head, it’s essential to take a break or step away. You might be your canine’s largest advocate, and she or he must know they will belief you. 

In case your canine’s nails are wanting lengthy, they usually aren’t responding to any of your trimming makes an attempt, search assist out of your vet. They could have a better and extra profitable time trimming your canine’s nails if want be, since they’ve entry to superior instruments and sedatives. And bear in mind to deal with your self to a mani-pedi too. You’ve earned it!

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Barbara Stanley, Influential Suicide Researcher, Dies at 73

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Dr. Stanley wrote greater than 200 papers. She was president of the Worldwide Academy for Suicide Analysis and served on boards and committees of {many professional} organizations. She additionally continued her scientific observe, treating sufferers who struggled with suicidal emotions.

Ms. Morris, Dr. Stanley’s daughter, stated that her mom was modest about her skilled success however was all the time thrilled to listen to from clinicians in far-flung locations who had used the methods she developed to assist sufferers.

“She was deeply touched by that, little question,” she stated in an interview. “She discovered it very, very, very significant and really passionate. The work was so fulfilling to her, each on a private degree and on a bigger degree, to have been of service.”

Barbara Hrevnack was born on Aug. 13, 1949, in Newark. Her father, John Hrevnack, labored as a tool-and-die maker, and her mom, Marie (Wnukowski) Hrevnack, labored within the claims division of an insurance coverage firm.

She earned a bachelor’s diploma at Montclair State Faculty and a doctorate in scientific psychology at New York College.

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She married Michael Edward Stanley, a neuroscientist, in 1970, and the 2 printed a variety of analysis papers collectively on such matters as knowledgeable consent and borderline character dysfunction. He died in 1993.

Along with her daughter, Dr. Stanley, who lived in Chatham, N.J., is survived by her son, Thomas Stanley, and her siblings, John Hrevnack, Michael Hrevnack and Joanne Kennedy.

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